Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Investigaciones geográficas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=0188-461120190001&lang=pt vol. num. 98 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Integrated Disaster Risk Management in Mexico: reflections, challenges, and proposals from the academic community seeking a transformation on policy making]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt resumen está disponible en el texto completo<hr/>Abstract: The lack of a public policy based on scientific and traditional knowledge, oriented to the integral management of the territory is intrinsically expressed in the construction of risk, and therefore in the increase of the occurrence of disasters. Although in the last three decades there have been some advances in terms of civil protection in Mexico, it is necessary to conduct a critical review and evaluation of the National Civil Protection System and the existing institutional framework within the three orders of government, to determine role and functionality, as well as its effectiveness and relevance, in order to analyze its possible transformation into a System or National Coordination of Integrated Disaster Risk Management (IDRM). The implementation of such system should be based on five normative axes; efficiency and equity, integrality, transversality, co-responsibility and accountability. IDRM should be understood as a complex systematic process consisting of a series of decisions, actions and activities, as well as a transversal coordination between the different institutional and social actors, to understand and transform the needs and weaknesses expressed in the different aspects of vulnerability and exposure, in specific responses and collective solutions, whose main objective is the deconstruction of risk. Inevitably, IDRM requires a foundation directed towards the reduction of vulnerabilities as a strategic axis of diagnosis, laws, programs and co-management of government and society, where safeguarding human life is privileged, along with the improvement of the quality of life of the population and its integral development, within a framework of respect for human rights and, consequently, with a gender perspective. Based on the principles of the IDRM developed and agreed upon at the international level, this document contains a series of recommendations that were discussed by a group of academicians and put into consideration of the candidates for the Presidency of Mexico and those candidates of popular election at the Federal, State and Municipal level in June 2018, as well as to the President-elected Andrés Manuel López Obrador, and the next members of his cabinet, head of the cross-cutting areas related to disaster prevention. Within the sphere of IDRM, the same conception of the General Law of Civil Protection of 2012, poses significant challenges of coordination and institutional, administrative, regulatory and financial reforms, as well as a reconceptualization that could lead to its efficient implementation as a Public Policy. The latter must have a binding cross-sectoral character, in and between the different levels of government and be regulated under the axes of efficiency and equity, integrality, transversality, co-responsibility and accountability. For this, the reduction of institutional vulnerability is unavoidable. The transformation of the current National Civil Protection System into a National System for the IDRM, is raised through 55 considerations and requires the support of the Federal Government to establish new bases, learning from the most valuable elements of the generated experiences and focus on the production of welfare conditions of the population, considering as determining factors for the reduction of social vulnerability. It is a long-term research task, which must begin with the contributions of sciences and social, natural disciplines, as well as engineering and technology, in a sphere of rigorous assessment of its contemporary complexity, from an integral perspective, and therefore, of transdisciplinary work. Under this perspective, the territory is a fundamental factor in the processes of assessment of social vulnerability as it determines to a large extent the scope of the disaster risk reduction required by the National System for IDRM. As such, it is necessary and urgent recovering, disseminating and encouraging scientific research to generate theories, methods and models (quantitative and qualitative) of analysis, aimed at the comprehension of the territory, territoriality and habitability. It also should be directed towards strengthening territorial management, taking into account its different dimensions and scales, for the assessment of the real conditions of the population: experiences, resources, assets, capabilities, potentials and requirements in terms of social welfare, as an inescapable - and irreplaceable - device for the reduction and management of risks. Therefore, undoubtedly, IDRM must be understood in a transversal way to the public policy that affects the use of the territories from the local scale, and through the permanent coordination with other territorial levels: this is where the disasters have their origin and that is where the reduction of risk must first be rooted, which leads to the prevention of future disasters. <![CDATA[Analysis of the Vulnerability to Flooding in the Santa Ana de Vuelta Larga Parish, Province of Manabi, Ecuador]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La parroquia Santa Ana de Vuelta Larga, localizada en la cuenca del río Portoviejo de la provincia de Manabí, Ecuador, es una de las más afectadas por inundaciones. Por ello, en el presente estudio se analizó su vulnerabilidad global mediante componentes físicos, sociales, económicos y ecológicos, para lo cual se emplearon: observación directa de aspectos como ubicación, conservación y material de construcción de las viviendas; encuestas personales y descriptivas con el fin de recabar información acerca de la gestión de riesgos y pérdidas económicas, y Sistemas de Información Geográfica (SIG) para el análisis cartográfico de los aspectos ecológicos de la parroquia. Las encuestas se realizaron aleatoriamente, por estratos, a 378 personas, resultado de la fórmula de poblaciones finitas, con un margen de error de 5% y un nivel de confianza de 95%. Los resultados arrojaron que la vulnerabilidad global es media (55%), en la que influye más el aspecto social por la falta de preparación ante el riesgo de parte de las instituciones gubernamentales locales y habitantes; le sigue el aspecto físico, por la cercanía de gran parte de viviendas al río; el ecológico, por la disminución de la cobertura vegetal y el sellado de suelo, y, en menor proporción, el económico, por la ubicación de la zona comercial sobre el área con pendientes inferiores a 2.5º. Se concluye que la vulnerabilidad de la parroquia está ligada a su ubicación geográfica, a la falta de un ordenamiento territorial y de preparación ante el riesgo y al cambio del uso de suelos y cobertura vegetal.<hr/>Abstract: The Santa Ana de Vuelta Larga’s parish, located in the Portoviejo’s basin river of the province of Manabi, Ecuador, is one of the most affected areas by inundations. For this reason, in this recent study it was analyzed its global vulnerability, through physical, social, economic and ecological elements. For this was used direct observation of aspect as the location, conservation and building materials for the construction of housing, also personal and descriptive polls to provide information about risk management and economic lost, and the Geographic Information Systems for the cartographic analysis of environmental aspects of the parish. Quizzes were realized randomly for social groups of 378 people, this is the result of finite population, with a margin error of 5% and a confidence level of 95%. The results show that global vulnerability is average (55%) where the social aspect is more influent, since there is a lack of preparation upon the risk of local governmental institutions and population. Followed by the physical aspect, because of the geographic proximity of households to the river, the ecological factor, for the vegetative cover reduction and the sealed soil, and in a minor proportion of the economic factor because of the location of the commercial zone in places with inferior slopes of 2.5°. Finally, the parish vulnerability is linked to its geographical location, lack of land development planes, preparation for risk and change of soil use and vegetation cover. <![CDATA[Cartography of Geomorphological Units of the Bosques Petrificados de Jaramillo National Park (Santa Cruz, Argentina) for its Geo-Archaeological Implementation]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Las investigaciones arqueológicas en el Macizo del Deseado (provincia de Santa Cruz, Argentina) han permitido registrar un gran volumen de evidencias de las sociedades cazadoras-recolectoras móviles que ocuparon el área desde tiempos prehispánicos. Para avanzar en estos estudios es necesario analizar la superficie del terreno y discriminar las diversas unidades geomorfológicas en donde se emplazan los restos arqueológicos. En este trabajo se utilizan técnicas geomáticas para generar una cartografía de detalle a partir de la hoja geológica existente para la región (escalas 1:250 000 y 1:100 000), imágenes satelitales de alta resolución e información planialtimétrica relevante. Como resultado se definieron nueve unidades geomorfológicas en las cuales se analizó la distribución de recursos que pudieron estar disponibles para las poblaciones en el pasado y se identificaron procesos naturales que afectan el registro arqueológico.<hr/>Abstract: Archaeological investigations in Macizo del Deseado (province of Santa Cruz, Argentina) have allowed registering a large volume of evidence on nomad hunter-gatherers who lived in the area since pre-Columbian times. Specifically in the Bosques Petrificados de Jaramillo National Park (PNBPJ), an area where systematic surface records have been recorded, the current state of these studies require detailed geomorphological mapping to fulfill the needs of archaeological research. In this study, we analyzed the surface of the local terrain, seeking to identify the different geomorphological units where archaeological remains are located. A GIS (Geographic Information System) approach was applied, using geomatics techniques to relate different types of data, including remote sensing images and relevant altimetric information to elaborate the required maps. The baseline data used include the current geological chart for the region (4769-IV chart at 1:250000 scale); the geomorphological sketch of the Laguna Grande sector (1:100000 scale); the hydrographic network obtained from the Digital Elevation Model of the Republic of Argentina (MDE-Ar, 1 arc-second spatial resolution), and high-resolution satellite images available for the area (50 cm resolution Bing images). Geomorphological maps were elaborated through an analysis of the terrain using a non-automated landform recognition method. For the final characterization and differentiation, we used fieldwork information (photographs and descriptions). As a result, nine geomorphological units were identified. In each, the distribution of resources that might have been available for ancient populations was analyzed, and the natural processes affecting the differential preservation and visibility of the archaeological record were identified. These units are: Mountain ranges, constituted by rocky outcrops of the oldest formations in the region, from the Jurassic period. The basaltic-plateaux unit, formed by three massive lava flows dated between the Eocene and the Plio-Pleistocene. The volcanic vent, comprising Cerro Madre and Daughter, a heavily eroded volcanic apparatus from the Mid-Miocene. Pediments, deposits made of materials transported by gravity from across broad landscape sectors, accumulated at the bottom of basins and deposited at two different levels, some from the Early Pliocene and others during the Pleistocene. Deposits of ancient lake beaches. Lake littoral strips formed by sediments associated with water bodies that were larger during the Pleistocene. Alluvial plains, with later Holocene-age deposits, distributed in several sectors across the study area, associated with lagoons and streams of the main intermittent watercourses. Sediments in depressions and lagoons, also from the Holocene; these are deposited in endorheic basins that are formed in landscape lowlands (mountain range unit) and in basaltic plateaux. Mass-displacement unit, consisting of materials from Holocene landslides. The analysis of geomorphological units and their concordance with geological information made it possible to delineate the structure of resources in the locality and generate expectations to be considered in the planning of further fieldwork. As regards the preservation of archaeological evidence, among the various units defined, basaltic plateaux, volcanic vents, and pediments are the sectors dominated by erosive factors or stability of the terrain surface. Archaeological visibility is high in those cases, and the most resistant materials are expected to continue being exposed on the terrain surface. In contrast, in deposits from beaches and lake littoral strips, alluvial plains, sediments in depressions and lagoons, and landslide deposits, the archaeological visibility on the surface is lower, dominated by optimal conditions for the burial of materials. This work is a contribution to the establishment of a geological, geomorphological, and geo-chronological contextual framework of the PNBPJ area. The earliest results derived from data gathering about the layers of archaeological data and the thematic cartography obtained have yielded information that constitutes a step forward in archaeological research, laying the foundations for the analysis of decisions on settlement in the landscape by ancient societies. In addition, the differential preservation processes and visibility across the geomorphological units identified represent key information for heritage management activities in this protected area. <![CDATA[Forest Zoning Under the Concept of Homogeneous Response Areas in the Center of Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: El aprovechamiento racional de los recursos naturales hace necesario identificar y analizar su condición espaciotemporal; existen diversas técnicas para generar información al respecto basadas en el manejo de información dentro del Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG). Por ello, el objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar Áreas de Respuesta Homogénea (ARH) que identifiquen superficies forestales, con condiciones ambientales similares, mediante el empleo de la técnica del álgebra de mapas. Para lograr lo anterior, se utilizó como variable principal el tipo de vegetación (6 clases) y fue complementada con variables físicas del territorio, tales como exposición (5 clases), altitud (7 intervalos) y tipo de suelo (8 clases). Para determinar las ARH se generaron expresiones a partir de la combinación de las clases mencionadas. En total se desarrollaron 2 016 combinaciones. Con el propósito de realizar la validación de los resultados se utilizaron los datos registrados en los conglomerados del Inventario Nacional Forestal y Suelos 2004-2007. Como resultado de este estudio se obtuvieron mapas por cada tipo de vegetación, en los cuales se presentan las cinco combinaciones a partir de las que se obtuvieron las mayores superficies. Con la finalidad de determinar la confiabilidad de los resultados se generó una matriz de confusión y se calculó el índice Kappa. A partir de los resultados conseguidos, se considera que, con la combinación de las cuatro variables empleadas en el estudio, es posible determinar superficies forestales, por lo que pueden ser empleadas en la definición de éstas.<hr/>Abstract: The rational use of natural resources makes it necessary to identify and analyze their spatial - temporal condition. There are several techniques to generate information on this subject based on the capabilities of the analysis of a geographic information system (GIS). Considering that the ecosystems and the tree species that compose them are developed in geographic areas with similar environmental requirements, techniques based on the analysis of the information have been developed to look for similar biotic and abiotic conditions. Despite the advantages it represents in saving time and resources the Homogeneous Response Areas (HRA), based on Map algebra has been used in a limited way in Mexico in the evaluation of forest area. The ARH are based on the concept of extrapolation, they allow to use information from easy access areas to areas of difficult access. This can be done in two ways, in both the information of a first ARH is used to estimate a phenomenon or variable in a second ARH. In the first option the results are not validated; in the second a sampling of low intensity is made in the second ARH considering that access to it is difficult. In large areas the mapping of forest areas are required to improve the results of classification using methodologies that consider the information available. The objective of the work was to determine Homogeneous Response Areas (HRA) of natural forest vegetation in the central-northern region of Mexico. To determine the distribution of six classes (types) of vegetation, the following forests were used as the main variable: oak forest, oak-pine forest, pine forest, pine-oak forest, tropical deciduous forest and tropical semi-evergreen forest, with them two topographical variables -exposition and altitude- were analyzed. In the first variable five classes were considered: Zenit, North, East, South and West, and on the second seven intervals of altitude were considered, in meters above sea level (msnm): 0 - 460, 461 - 921, 922 - 1382, 1383 - 1843, 1844 - 2,304, 2,305 - 2,765 and 2,766 - 3,048). In the same way eight types of soil were considered: Xerosol, Litosol, Regosol, Rendzina, Vertisol, Feozem, Chernozem, Luvisol. To determine the ARH, expressions were generated from the combination of the aforementioned classes. In total, 2,016 combinations were developed. Most of the surfaces determined for each type of vegetation were produced as a result of five combinations, in which maps were generated. As a result of the analysis, the pine forest was located mainly in the Feozem soil type and in an altitude range of 2,305 to 2,765 meters above sea level, the pine-oak forest, in S exposure, between 1,383 and 2,304 meters above sea level, the oak forest was located between 922 to 1,843 meters above sea level, the oak-pine forest from 1,383 to 2,304 meters above sea level, tropical deciduous forest in an altitude range of 0 to 921 meters above sea level, with types of lithosol and rendzina soil and tropical semi-evergreen forest was located SE, from 0 to 921 meters above sea level. To validate the results, information was used from 42 sampling clusters of the National Forestry and Soils Inventory 2004 - 2007. A confusion matrix was generated and the Kappa index was calculated, resulting in a Kappa index of 0.886 with respect to the 0.9 presented by the matrix of confusion. The combination of the four variables used in the present study allows to define forest areas adequately and in a reliable way. An important aspect to consider in the definition of ARH is the selection and number of variables that will be used to make up the zoning. Although it is possible to include variables such as precipitation, temperature or slope to determine if these influence in obtaining better results, the increase in the number of variables implies an increase in the number of possible combinations. For the six types of vegetation, areas of easy and difficult access were located. In the former it is possible to obtain a representative sample and to estimate forest variables in the second type. <![CDATA[Application of the Continuum Neighborhood Spatial Analysis and Logistic Regression in the Spatial Modeling of Probability of Occurrence of Landslides]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Este trabajo presenta un análisis comparativo de dos modelos estadísticos de probabilidad de procesos gravitacionales (PG) con la aplicación de regresión logística (RL), utilizando únicamente la variable pendiente del terreno. En un primer modelo se analizó información in situ de lugares con deslizamientos y áreas estables; en el segundo se analizó la información de los mismos sitios mediante el Análisis Espacial de Vecindad Continua (AEVC). La precisión que reportaron ambos modelos (in situ y AEVC) se evaluó estadísticamente con la medida de ajuste de -2 Logaritmo de la Verosimilitud (-2LL). Para la calibración de los modelos se utilizó un inventario de deslizamientos y el Continuo de Elevación Mexicano, versión 3.0 (CEM 3.0), del Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (Inegi). Los resultados muestran que, al utilizar la información de las áreas de vecindad, se obtiene un mayor nivel de ajuste de la ecuación en comparación con el modelo elaborado utilizando la información in situ. El valor de -2LL para el modelo con datos de vecindad fue 264.312, y para los datos in situ, 269.573. Del mismo modo, la tabla de clasificación global del modelo de vecindad reportó 58.5%, mientras que para el análisis in situ fue de 51.8%. Lo anterior muestra un aumento de la correcta clasificación en el modelo estadístico de 6.7% al utilizar el análisis de vecindad. El área de estudio es la cuenca del río La Ciénega, ubicada en la ladera este del volcán Nevado de Toluca, en el Estado de México.<hr/>Abstract: Spatial models of probability based on the Logistic Regression (RL) usually collect data for model calibration directly from the location of the sampling site. This data collection method involves the isolation of the site, leading to loss of information, as the neighborhood area is not considered; therefore, the LR model may be less representative of reality. Aiming to construct spatial models of higher accuracy when using the RL statistical model, this work addresses the analysis and integration of data on independent variables for areas surrounding the sampling sites used for the calibration of the statistical model. A few works have conducted a statistical evaluation of how the neighborhood areas to calibration sites may yield a higher relationship with the occurrence of landslides processes, leading to higher precision in the classification of areas based on the probability of occurrence, as compared to in-situ data collection at the sampling site. Hence the importance of considering the relationship between the sampling site and its neighborhood area when gathering information for calibrating the probability model. This paper reports a comparative analysis of two statistical models of probability of occurrence of gravitational processes (PG) involving the application of RL and using terrain slope as the independent variable. A first model analyzed data collected in situ on the independent variable from sampling sites with landslides and in stable areas; the second analyzed information for these same sites using Spatial Analysis of Continuum Neighborhood (AEVC) to derive information about the terrain slope variable. The implementation of AEVC for the elaboration of the statistical model provided information for a detailed assessment of how the area surrounding sampling sites is statistically related to the process studied. The neighborhood area was estimated by using a circular shape centered in the sampling point, the radius of which was increased gradually in 1-pixel increments to 20 pixels. The data of the terrain slope variable were analyzed separately for the site location (in situ) and for each of the neighboring areas, from a distance of 1 to 20 pixels in radio. This approach was used for calibrating the RL statistical models for each distance analyzed, which were then evaluated in statistical terms aiming to identify the model(s) that yield the best classification level. The precision of in-situ and AEVC models was evaluated using -2 Logarithm of Likelihood (-2LL) as a fit measure. This measure facilitates the comparison of two models, where the difference between the values obtained represents the shift in prediction level between models. A lower value of -2LL indicates better goodness of fit of the model; therefore, the size of the neighborhood area analyzed and the value of -2LL were both used for selecting the area for which the terrain slope contributed to better goodness of fit of the probability model. Models were calibrated using an inventory of landslides, and the terrain slope variable was derived from the Continuo de Elevación Mexicano version 3.0 (CMS 3.0). The results show that using data for neighboring areas yields higher goodness of fit of the equation relative to the model developed using in-situ data. The value of -2LL for the model was 264.3 using neighborhood data and 269.5 using in-situ data. The table on overall classification reported 58.5 % for the neighborhood model and 51.8 % for the in-situ analysis, showing a 6.7 % increase in the classification of the statistical model when the neighborhood analysis is used. The information used for the selection of the optimal distance for AEVC and the calibration of the statistical model can be depicted spatially; therefore, the results from the LR model can be represented in a map of the distribution of probability of landslides in the study area. The study area is the La Ciénega river basin located on the eastern slope of the Nevado de Toluca volcano, in the State of Mexico. <![CDATA[Regionalisation of Tourism in the State of Oaxaca]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal desarrollar una propuesta de regionalización turística en el estado de Oaxaca a partir de la determinación y evaluación de la jerarquía funcional de sus centros regionales, la distribución territorial de sus atractivos turísticos y, principalmente, la accesibilidad regional mediante el análisis su red carretera, con el fin de establecer una jerarquización de regiones y determinar una plataforma cognoscitiva que permita contribuir en la planeación y racionalización del espacio turístico en la entidad oaxaqueña.<hr/>Abstract: This paper proposes a regionalisation of tourism in the state of Oaxaca, Mexico. This is done by weighing up the functional ranking of the main state tourist hubs, the geographical distribution of natural and cultural resources for tourism in this part of Mexico and the regional accessibility of these places assessed by the analysis of the state road network. This procedure led us to establish two major research findings: first, a hierarchical set of tourist regions within the state and, second, a cognitive platform on to which support a proposal for planning and rationalizing the tourism space in Oaxaca. <![CDATA[Spatial effects of cultural thematization for recreation and tourism in the pedestrian cultural corridors in Mexico City’s Historic Center]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Este artículo aborda las improntas territoriales de la peatonalización de los dos corredores culturales más importantes del Centro Histórico de la Ciudad de México (CHCM): Regina-San Jerónimo y Madero-Gante-Condesa. Éstos forman parte de los programas de rehabilitación patrimonial de los gobiernos local y federal que, con el fin de incentivar la economía local, han reorientado las actividades hacia el turismo y el consumo cultural mediante la tematización patrimonial, lo que ha resultado en cambios en el uso del suelo hacia actividades orientadas al ocio, la recreación y el turismo, así como un incipiente proceso de gentrificación en determinados espacios.<hr/>Abstract: This article examines the spatial effects derived from the rehabilitation and pedestrianization of the two most important cultural corridors of Mexico City’s Historical Center (CHCM): Regina-San Jerónimo and Madero-Gante-Condesa. In a bid to attract a greater number of visitors and investors to the city, now promoted as “Cultural Capital”, the local and federal governments have invested heavily on the recreation and tourism sectors of the city center’s economy. Endowed with a substantial monumental patrimony, these two cultural corridors have a great potential for tourism and cultural consumption, and the diverse cultural amenities they offer have been packaged for promotion in the national and international markets by local administrations and businessmen alike. The effects of the spatial processes involved in the rehabilitation and pedestrianization of these two corridors (namely, cultural thematization, land use changes towards leisure activities, space refunctionalization for recreational and tourism activities, the abandonment by lower-income residents, and the consequent arrival of the middle classes, among others) are positively and negatively perceived by different actors, according to their own perspective. For the study of urban space in relation to leisure and recreational activities in a capitalist consumer society, in this article a theoretical-conceptual approach has been employed. This has allowed to confirm both the use of territory as a commodity and as an economic resource in a selective and differentiated manner, and the fact that space plays an important role as factor of production, as well as a social projection, through the materialization of certain tendencies. This is the case of the pedestrian cultural corridors, whose aim is to confer meaning to places for their usufruct. The article explains how historical-cultural thematization has a tendency to build spaces on preexisting narratives, sometimes exacerbating their historical content, in order to generate spaces for consumption in a territory homogenized by cultural themes derived from policies and/or market demands. An incipient elitization or gentrification of space, manifest in the consequent occupation by high-income social strata following the abandonment by the lower-income population, is also identified. Once the methodology has been expounded, the article proceeds to address the territorial configuration of the CHCM, placing special emphasis on its recreational and tourism organization and infrastructure. A review of the existing cultural patrimony projects by federal and local governments, as well as private entrepreneurs and sectors of civil society (including land use changes), reveals the specific weight accorded to these activities, a fact that is confirmed in the field by interviews to key actors. The role of government offices, tourism agencies, and entrepreneurs in promoting the meaning and historical content associated to the thematization of these spaces in the media (printed magazines, tourist guides and electronic sources) is examined. In order to build an attractive product for visitors, consumers and tourists, in a landscape reminiscent of the pre-Hispanic and Colonial periods, the media presents an image of the CHCM as a cultural thematic space endowed with originality: simultaneously the seat of the ancient cultures that founded the City of Tenochtitlan, and a repository of an architectural heritage of the Colonial period. Finally, the socio-spatial effects of land use changes from traditional neighborhood shops to recreation and tourism establishments are explored in both cultural corridors. The use of space by certain social strata is conditioned by the presence of certain actors, a circumstance that has led to the loss of social cohesion and local daily practices, the rise in the price of land rent, the abandonment of the area by lower income population, and the arrival of middle-class residents. <![CDATA[Urban and Peri-urban Agriculture. Territorial Rearrangement and Potential of Urban Food Systems]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La práctica de actividades agrícolas en las ciudades se ha difundido en numerosos países, independientemente de sus condiciones sociopolíticas y económicas. Se han conformado expresiones territoriales precisas a partir de las interacciones de la ruralidad con la dinámica urbana, fundamentalmente, las modalidades en las prácticas agrícolas y su rol potencial en la gestión sustentable y la seguridad alimentaria de los espacios urbanos y periurbanos. Se presentan algunos debates contemporáneos en torno al papel que desempeña la Agricultura Urbana y Periurbana (AUP) en la reconfiguración de los sistemas metropolitanos y su entorno rural. Se exponen algunas expresiones territoriales y se analizan diversos cuestionamientos en torno al sentido y las potencialidades reales de las prácticas agrícolas urbanas en términos de sustentabilidad y su incidencia en los patrones alimentarios urbanos. Se acota el fenómeno a lo que acontece en ámbitos urbanos en Europa Occidental, América del Norte y América Latina. Se concluye que si bien su práctica se ha acrecentado, hasta el momento la AUP no ha alcanzado una presencia significativa en los sistemas alimentarios urbanos y su consideración es aún marginal en la construcción de las políticas públicas territoriales. En los países desarrollados su impacto ha sido, sobre todo, en términos terapéuticos, paisajísticos (espacios verdes) y en la salvaguarda patrimonial de los espacios urbanos y periurbanos; en los países pobres ha trascendido en el autoabasto de la población urbana de bajos recursos, en la recuperación de espacios públicos, el fortalecimiento del tejido social y el desarrollo comunitario.<hr/>Abstract: Agriculture has become a common practice in many cities, regardless of the local socio-political and economic environment. Unique territorial expressions have emerged from the interactions between rural and urban dynamics, essentially regarding the modalities in agricultural practices and their potential contribution to sustainable management and food security in urban and peri-urban areas. Some contemporary debates on the role of Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture (AUP) in the spatial rearrangement of metropolitan systems and their rural environment are outlined here. We use concepts such as geographic proximity and organizational proximity, which support the changes in production dynamics, as well as the roles of stakeholders and networks in peri-urban agricultural areas, which strengthen modalities such as short production-consumption circuits. We describe the territorial conflicts that emerge around this phenomenology. Also, we describe some contemporary territorial expressions (characterized as agricultural urbanity or ruralization of the city) in terms of the rural-urban relationship (living framework, landscape, or territorial reserve, agricultural space); also, the conceptualization of territorial projects is analyzed, where agricultural production plays a key role in territorial organization processes (agri-urban projects, urban factories, agricultural parks, etc.). The proliferation of urban agricultural practices, which take place within interstitial spaces or in public urban spaces (urban gardens, community gardens), and their inclusion in policies on sustainable development or food security are discussed as novel elements of agro-urban territorial governance. Various questions are explored regarding the true meaning and potential of urban and peri-urban agricultural practices, such as commodification, which transforms and revalues rural areas, setting new guidelines for rural production and consumption, mainly in peri-urban areas. The trend of urban agricultural practices in the strengthening of processes such as gentrification is outlined as a strategy of real estate capital for revaluation in the marketing of lots as regards urban, peri-urban, and even rural properties, by shifting the uses of land for the development of amenities and rural urbanization; the effectiveness thereof is challenged in relation to territorial sustainability and their influence on urban food consumption patterns. As for urban and peri-urban agricultural practices, the territorial dynamics derived from supportive production and consumption associations is also addressed, This includes organizational models of agro-ecological consumption groups and cooperatives; their integration and implementation of new production and consumption schemes; as political and social self-organization options; as alternative food networks; where aspects worth highlighting include their dimensions and association with local farmers, as well as with the social fabric and its relationship with resilience and urban development strategies. Some international modalities developed from the Community Supported Agriculture (CSA) model are highlighted. The phenomenon focuses on current developments in metropolitan areas of Western Europe, North America, and Latin America, where urban and peri-urban agricultural production has spread, both within cities and in adjacent areas, where they still coexist with solidly structured agricultural production systems for the daily supply in urban markets. It is concluded that, although its practice has grown, AUP has not attained a significant presence in urban food supply systems yet, still being only marginally considered in the development of territorial public policies. Although AUP contributes to food production in developed countries, its primary impact deals with therapeutic and landscaping (green spaces), as well as with the patrimonial safeguard of urban and peri-urban spaces; in poor countries, it focuses on the food self-sufficiency of the low-income urban population, the recovery of public spaces, the strengthening of the social fabric, and community development. <![CDATA[Miners in neoliberal Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La investigación aborda las principales transformaciones experimentadas por el empleo en la minería mexicana a lo largo de las últimas décadas en el contexto de las reformas neoliberales. Se evidencia el auge que la minería mexicana ha experimentado de la mano de la gran empresa minera metálica y sus repercusiones tanto en la reconfiguración espacial del empleo minero y su actual distribución como en la dinámica salarial, en la que se profundizan las importantes diferencias entre la gran minería metálica y la pequeña y mediana minería. Estas profundas disparidades se reflejan también en el incremento de la subcontratación y de la eventualidad laboral en la gran minería metálica como mecanismos de captación de trabajadores, y también en la mayor dependencia de las remuneraciones respecto del reparto de utilidades, todo lo cual refleja el éxito alcanzado por la gran minería en el desarrollo de sus estrategias de flexibilización del trabajo.<hr/>Abstract: This article describes the profound transformations of employment in the Mexican mining sector after the adoption and implementation of several neoliberal legal reforms at the end of the 20th century, ranging from the privatization of state-owned mining companies and mineral reserves to the new Mining Act of 1992, and the important inflow of Canadian capital favored by these legal reforms as well as by the signing of the North American Free Trade Agreement. This, along with the rising international prices of metals, particularly gold, led to a boom of Mexican mining, involving a boost of employment led by large metal mining companies. The analysis of these transformations, summarized below, is based on official statistics for a period of 25 years, from 1988 to 2013. These data are displayed in various tables, graphs and maps that support the assertions and conclusions reached, allowing a quick and easy reading and interpretation of the information presented. The growing dominance of large metal mining companies led to a critical spatial redistribution of the mining employment in the country, which experienced a boom since the mid-2000, led by gold, copper, and silver mining. The expansion of large metal mining companies in areas of Sonora, Zacatecas, and Durango was paralleled by a crisis of small and medium-sized mining, resulting in the extinction of the mining activity in various municipalities across the country. This crisis affected large non-metal mining in specific sectors and areas (the coal crisis in north Coahuila and the extinction of the sulfur mining in southeast Veracruz), but also small and medium-sized metal mining given the high investments required by the new production model: open-pit mining. Thus, while metal mining comprises increasingly larger companies in terms of their number of workers, small and medium-scale mining was virtually confined to non-metal mining, which underwent an atomization process, i.e., an increasing number of smaller companies. This non-metal small and medium-scale mining is nowadays dominated by the mining of construction materials, a modality that gained jobs driven by the construction industry. Workers of large metal mining companies grew not only in number but also were benefited from a rise in salaries and payroll in real terms. It is worth to point out that Mexican miners enjoy high salaries compared to other Mexican workers, but low when compared with miners in other countries. This evolution, no doubt a positive one, was nonetheless tempered by two phenomena, the rise of subcontracting and of temporary jobs, phenomena promoted from large mining companies to achieve greater flexibility in the hiring and termination of the labor required. This flexibilization in the number of workers was supplemented with the flexibilization of the cost of labor, given the increasing importance of profits sharing in the overall payroll of workers, especially in the large metal mining sector; this way, the cost of labor was linked to company profits. However, payroll and salaries show huge contrasts within the mining industry: salaries are much higher for white-collar versus blue-collar workers; for permanent versus temporary workers; in large versus small and medium-sized mining companies; in metal versus non-metal mining. Thus, while a white-collar worker of a large mining company earns a monthly salary slightly above $18.5 thousand pesos, a blue-collar worker of a small and medium-sized mining company earns a salary of only $4.1 thousand pesos per month, having even seen his purchasing power reduced over the past years. In short, large metal mining companies, particularly those linked to precious metals and copper, were the main beneficiaries of the liberal reforms implemented in the country, also driven by the boom in metals prices in international markets. They were responsible for significant changes in mining in Mexico, both positive (increase in employment and salaries) and negative (increase in subcontracting, temporary jobs, and flexibilization of the cost of labor), so that their workers have partially benefited from this boom. However, their response in times of declining prices and the consequences for workers remain to be seen, with large mining companies having adopted key instruments (flexibilization of labor) to manage with the cycles of sudden and sharp expansion and contraction typical of this activity. <![CDATA[A Cultural Geography in Construction. Mexico City in <em>Los bandidos de Río Frío</em> by Manuel Payno (1889-1891)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Una propuesta de trabajo de campo: la decodificación del neobarroco en las fuentes del bosque de Chapultepec en la Ciudad de México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Brenner, N. (2016) <em>La explosión de lo urbano,</em> Santiago de Chile: Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, ARQ Ediciones. 199 pp., ISBN: 978-956-9571-18-3]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Lang, J y Marshall, N. (2017). <em>Urban Squares as Places, Links and Displays. Successes and Failures</em> Nueva York: Routledge. 296 pp., ISBN: 978-1-138-95927-9]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Sáenz-López Pérez, S. y J. Pimentel (2017). <em>Cartografías de lo desconocido: mapas de la BNE</em>. Madrid; Biblioteca Nacional de España, 239 pp., ISBN 978-84-92462-57-5]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Mooser, F. (2018). <em>Geología del Valle de México y otras regiones del país</em>. Presentación de Guillermo Villalobos y prólogo de Daniel Reséndiz Núñez México: Colegio de Ingenieros Civiles de México, A.C., ISBN n/a. Seis mapas y 11 perfiles.]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Gilland, J. y Montelongo, J. (2018). <em>A Library for the Americas. The Nettie Lee Benson Latina American Collection.</em> Austin: University of Texas Press. 204 pp., ISBN 978-1-4773-1511-8]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Kochen Gómez, J. J. (Ed.) (2018). <em>Acervo histórico Fundación ICA</em>. México: Fundación ICA A. C., 104 pp., ISBN n/a]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Rodríguez Figueroa, A. B. y Tejedor Cabrera, A. (Coords.) (2018). <em>Jardines históricos en el paisaje urbano</em>. <em>México-España</em>, México: Facultad de Arquitectura, UNAM 217 pp., ISBN 978-607-30-0581-4]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[1<sup>a</sup> Jornada de Geografía Portuguesa Colegio de Geografía, Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, UNAM Salón 2-9, anexo Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez Ciudad Universitaria, Cd. Mx., 30 de noviembre de 2018]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Curso: <em>La producción del espacio urbano y la reproducción social,</em> por Ana Fani Alessandri Carlos. Cátedra de Geografía Humana Elisée Reclus. Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora. Ciudad de México, 12-15 de noviembre de 2018]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico. <![CDATA[Coloquio <em>La Región en el Pensamiento Clásico y Contemporáneo: Convergencias y Divergencias Multi e Interdisciplinarias.</em> Cátedra Extraordinaria “Henry David Thoreau” Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, UNAM Ciudad Universitaria, Cd. Mx., 18 y 19 de octubre, 2018]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Los bandidos de Río Frío, escrita entre 1889 y 1891, es una de las primeras novelas que proponen definir la identidad mexicana por medio de la presentación de un amplio cuadro social y de costumbres de la primera mitad del siglo XIX. A partir de su lectura se busca la relación de la geografía cultural con la literatura en el contexto del siglo XIX mexicano y la manera en que estos dos ámbitos se juntan con el fin de explorar la gestación del nacionalismo para crear nuevas formas de conciencia espacial. De hecho, la obra registra una gran cantidad de lugares, paisajes y trayectos comunes que adquieren significado simbólico para los personajes, de forma que, mediante sus prácticas espaciales, se articula una geografía cultural que parte de la capital del país. La novela también es resultado de las herramientas estilísticas y retóricas de las cuales echó mano el autor como parte de las corrientes literarias de su tiempo. Estos vehículos narrativos tuvieron la facultad de ejercer en el lector un sentido de apropiación metafórica del espacio recorrido y vivido también por el propio Manuel Payno. Se propone leer el paisaje urbano de la Ciudad de México y descifrar un sistema espacial a partir de un concepto clave de la geografía cultural: el geosímbolo, definido por el geógrafo francés Jöel Bonnemaison (2000) como unidades espaciales que estructuran y animan el territorio. Al final, los diferentes niveles de percepción espacial analizados suman una geografía cultural que no sólo ordena el mundo narrativo de Payno, sino que contribuye a crear el escenario social y la identidad colectiva que comenzaba a forjarse en las primeras décadas del México independiente.<hr/>Abstract: Los bandidos de Río Frío, written between 1889 and 1891, is one of the first novels that propose to define Mexican identity by presenting a large social and manners picture written of the first half of the nineteenth century. From its reading arises the searching of the relationship between the cultural geography with literature in the context of the mexican nineteenth century; and the way these two areas come together in order to explore the gestation of nationalism to create new forms of spatial awareness. In fact, Los bandidos de Río Frío records a large number of places, landscapes and common routes that acquire symbolic meaning for the characters, so that through their spatial practices a cultural geography is articulated which it starts from the country’s own capital. The novel is also the result of the stylistic and rhetorical tools used by the author as part of the literature movement of his time. These narrative vehicles had the power to exercise in the reader a metaphorical sense of appropriation of the same space traveled and lived by its author. It is proposed to read the urban landscape of Mexico City and decipher a spatial system based on a key concept of cultural geography: the geosymbol, defined by the french geographer Jöel Bonnemaison, as the spatial units that structure and animate the territory. In the end, the different levels of spatial perception analyzed add up to a cultural geography that not only orders Payno’s narrative world, but also helped to create the social scenario and collective identity that was beginning to be forged in the first decades of independent Mexico.