Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Investigaciones geográficas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=0188-461120180003&lang=pt vol. num. 97 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Effects of ENSO on precipitation in Mexico City]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: This study investigates the relationship between the phenomenon known as El Niño-Southern Oscillation, characterized by the ENSO Multivariate Index, and the annual precipitation around Mexico City. The spatial and temporal behavior of precipitation during the 1950-2010 period was also assessed, revealing that during the period mentioned the annual mean precipitation does not show a linear trend, but a variation with a single cycle only. Contingency tables and the Chi-square test were used to reject the hypothesis of independence between precipitation and ENSO. In addition, the bootstrap resampling technique showed that negative ENSO phases reduce precipitation in the Mexico City area; the neutral phase increases precipitation and lowers the probability that precipitation be below the median value. During the positive phase, precipitation is not significantly affected.<hr/>Resumen: Se estudia la relación que existe entre el Fenómeno de El Niño-Oscilación del Sur, caracterizado por el Índice Multivariado del ENOS, y la precipitación en la Ciudad de México en escala anual. Se estudia también su comportamiento espacial y temporal durante el periodo 1950-2010 encontrándose que en el periodo de estudio el promedio anual de la lluvia no presenta tendencia lineal pero si un ciclo de variación. Se usan tablas de contingencia y la prueba Ji-cuadrada para rechazar la hipótesis de independencia entre la precipitación y el fenómeno ENOS. Además, se utilizó la técnica de remuestreo de bootstrap, encontrando que la fase negativa de ENOS disminuye la precipitación en la Ciudad de México; la fase neutra aumenta la precipitación y disminuye la probabilidad de que la precipitación sea inferior al valor mediano. Durante la fase positiva, la precipitación no se ve significativamente afectada. <![CDATA[Assessing wind, solar, and wave energy sources in the southwest of Buenos Aires province (Argentina)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Identifying the potential of renewable energy sources is of interest for energy planning. The main goal of this study is to assess wind, solar and wave energy resources in the southwest of Buenos Aires Province (Argentina) in terms of their potential for electricity production, their relationship with electrical load demand, as well as the integration between them. Data from four monitoring stations were used. In general, peak power levels were observed in the summer, coinciding with the highest energy demand, reaching mean values up to 1.06 kW m-2 (wind at 30 m height), 0.56 kW m-2 (solar) and 4.60 kW m-1 (wave). The relationship between renewable sources at various time scales was explored through the Pearson correlation coefficient. wind and solar sources were highly and positively correlated, meaning that these cannot complement each other for combined exploitation. However, most of the remaining source pairs, such as wind (continental/onshore) versus wave power, solar versus wave power, wind (offshore) versus wind (continental/onshore) power, and wind (offshore) versus solar power, showed promising results for complementarity.<hr/>Resumen: Identificar el potencial de los recursos energéticos renovables es de gran interés dentro de la planificación energética. El objetivo principal de este estudio es evaluar los recursos eólico, solar y undimotriz en el Suroeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina), analizando su potencial para la producción de electricidad, su relación con la carga de demanda, y la integración entre los mismos. Se emplearon datos de cuatro estaciones de monitoreo. En términos generales, se halló que los mayores niveles de potencia se observan en los meses de verano, coincidiendo con la máxima demanda eléctrica, alcanzando valores medios de hasta 1.06 kW m-2 (viento - 30 m de altura-), 0.56 kW m-2 (solar) y 4.60 kW m-1 (ola). Se aplicó el coeficiente de correlación de Pearson para evaluar las relaciones entre los recursos renovables a múltiples escalas temporales. Con respecto a la asociación entre los recursos eólico y solar, se encontró que éstos mostraron correlaciones altas y positivas, lo que significa que no pueden ser complementarios entre sí para su explotación combinada. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los pares de recursos restantes, tales como viento (continental/onshore) versus ola, solar versus ola, viento (offshore) versus viento (continental/onshore) y viento (offshore) versus solar, mostraron resultados prometedores para la complementariedad. <![CDATA[Priority Conservation Areas (APC) in the Usumacinta watershed. The application of a multi-criteria approach]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Las áreas prioritarias para la conservación (APC) se han establecido para proteger regiones biodiversas valiosas del creciente impacto humano. La cuenca transfronteriza del río Usumacinta es un importante reservorio cultural, hidrológico y biológico de Mesoamérica, donde, sin embargo, prevalecen importantes amenazas antropogénicas que han limitado los esfuerzos de protección de los recursos naturales. El presente trabajo desarrolla una evaluación multicriterio (EMC) de aspectos biológicos, hidrológicos y antropogénicos de la cuenca Usumacinta para identificar APC, es decir, aquellas áreas con la mayor aptitud de conservación de acuerdo con su grado de irremplazabilidad y vulnerabilidad. El modelo determina que aunque el 23.7 % del territorio son APC, menos de la mitad se encuentran bajo protección por alguna de las actuales 124 áreas protegidas (AP). Priorizar áreas de conservación dentro del esquema actual de protección de la cuenca facilitaría un manejo sistémico basado en las variaciones biofísicas y sociales regionales, complementando así los esfuerzos locales para proteger las 30 especies vulnerables presentes en la cuenca de los impactos de las actividades humanas. Los resultados del presente trabajo evidencian la importancia de buscar oportunidades de colaboración en materia de conservación transfronteriza, pudiendo incrementar 4.9% (Guatemala) y 0.3% (México) la superficie nacional protegida.<hr/>Abstract: Priority Conservation Areas (APC) has been established to protect hotspots from human impact. The Usumacinta watershed is an important reservoir for biological resources, fluvial ecosystems and cultural heritage in Mesoamerica; however anthropogenic threats limit conservation efforts. We develop a multicriteria analysis with biological, hydrological and anthropogenic criteria to identify APC, i.e. regions with higher conservation aptitude based on vulnerability and irreplaceability criteria. Our results indicate that 23.7% of the watershed are APC; however, less than half are protected by the 124 Protected Areas in the region. Prioritizing conservation areas within the current watershed protection scheme would facilitate systemic management based on regional biophysical and social variations, thus complementing local efforts to protect 30 vulnerable species that inhabit the watershed from the impacts of human activities. Our results open new opportunities for collaboration in transnational conservation, increasing between 0.3% (Mexico) and 4.86% (Guatemala) the national protected area in the Usumacinta watershed. <![CDATA[Hiking and Geography in Post-Revolutionary Mexico: the Club de Exploraciones de México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Estudiar los orígenes del excursionismo en México tiene un considerable interés geográfico. Sus itinerarios y objetivos excursionistas, así como los relatos que elaboraban de cada salida, son una fuente para el conocimiento geográfico histórico de esta parte usualmente olvidada, y obviada, del país como son sus espacios de montaña. También nos permiten acercarnos al papel que cumplieron las asociaciones excursionistas como transmisores de valores sociales, nacionales y de conocimientos. Esto es lo que nos muestra el estudio de los primeros años de vida del Club de Exploraciones de México (1922). En esta primera aproximación, desde un contexto histórico, político y social de grandes cambios, nos adentramos en las inquietudes que motivaron que un grupo de personas, de la mano del californiano Otis Mc Allister, se reuniera periódicamente con el objetivo de recorrer y conocer el entorno geográfico que les rodeaba. Su ideario, las características sociales de sus miembros y el análisis de las más de cien salidas efectuadas entre 1922 y 1924 nos revelan la importancia del excursionismo como práctica social y como medio de transmisión de valores nacionales; la relevancia del contacto con el medio natural en la formación de la persona; y el papel de los clubes excursionistas en el descubrimiento y conocimiento del relieve nacional.<hr/>Abstract: The study the origins of hiking in Mexico is highly relevant from the geographic standpoint. The early itineraries and objectives of hikers, as well as the stories they developed from each field trip, are a source for the historical geographic knowledge of mountainous areas, which are usually forgotten and overlooked. They also allow us to get closer to the role played by the associations of hikers as communicators of national social values and knowledge. A geographical reading of hiking should address at least three aspects: first, the location of places visited; second, aspects observed in them, if at all; and third, the perceptions and feelings of hikers in those places or along the paths chosen. This article focuses explores the origin of organized hiking in Mexico, its objectives and scope over the first three years of existence. We will focus particularly on the first aspect mentioned, i.e. the destinations and routes employed by hikers, supplemented with references to the observations made, from the review of the documents and publications of one of the oldest formally established associations of Mexico, the Club de Exploraciones de México (Hikers’ Club of Mexico, CEM). Created in 1922 from an initiative of the Californian Otis Mc Allister, CEM is a good example of an association that has inspired many generations of young men and women, for nearly a century, to carry out an activity considered by them to be more than a sport. In this first approach from historical, political and social scenario of hughe changes, we explore the concerns of this group that met periodically to walk around and get to know the geographical environment in their surroundings. The idea of McAllister was to charter an association similar to the Sierra Club, in California, in which, in addition to being a member, he was also the son and nephew of two of its founders. The mission of the Club, the social characteristics of its members and the analysis of more than a hundred of field trips between 1922 and 1924 reveal the importance of hiking as a social practice and as a means for the communication of national values; the relevance of the contact with the natural environment in the formation of an individual; and the role of hiker clubs in the discovery and knowledge of the national relief. Among the key findings, we can affirm that the Mexican hiking, at least in its early stages, seemingly was not driven by scientific curiosity, unlike European and North American alpine clubs. As in Europe, the Mexican hiking was an urban phenomenon led by middle-class citizens who wanted to make good use of leisure time while broadening the knowledge of the country through its mountains. It also had a nationalist side, reflected in its coat of arms and the exaltation of human growth through contact with nature and physical activity. Field trips carried out by CEM in its first two years indicate an interest for national emblematic places, such as archaeological zones (Teotihuacán-Acolman, Cuicuilco-El Pedregal, Huexotla, Tepozteco, Xochicalco, Tezcotzingo), some of which were in process of recovery and restoration. Also of interest were areas of pre-Columbian and colonial historic-artistic value such as Tepozotlán, the convent of Los Remedios and the aqueduct (Naucalpan, State of Mexico), Tepoztlán (Morelos); forest areas and other areas of unique natural beauty (El Chico, Zempoala lagoons and Hueyapan); and peaks located relatively close that promised spectacular panoramic views (Ajusco, Cerro San Miguel, Coconetla). There was no apparent systematic exploration plan behind these destinations, from either a chronological or a geographical standpoint. Instead, the selection criteria seemed to have been based on a certain historical tradition of beautiful sites whose knowledge led to others. On the other hand, destinations were selected were according to accessibility by transportation means, as these played a key role in the expansion of its geographical range. Although hikers converse spatially with the territory by traveling across it on foot, most of the goals of the hiking club would not have been possible without transportation means. The territorial structuring conformed by the network of trains and trams allowed traveling to places that were frequently remote, at a time when owning a vehicle was uncommon and the road network was still to be consolidated in Mexico. <![CDATA[Evolution, similarities and differences in the urban structure between mexican border and colonial cities]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: El objetivo del presente artículo es verificar cómo la estructura urbana de las ciudades medias y su evolución cobran sentido a partir del posicionamiento de una temporalidad que impacta en su conformación de manera indistinta. Para ello, se busca comprender la evolución del espacio urbano de seis ciudades mexicanas a partir de sus zonas de crecimiento, con el fin de identificar las similitudes y diferencias en la evolución de ciudades fronterizas de norte de México y ciudades de origen colonial. Si bien puede suponerse que los espacios centrales de ciudades coloniales conservan una función en la estructura urbana que resulta diferencial al de los centros de las ciudades localizadas en la frontera norte. A partir del análisis de la población migrante, vivienda abandonada, densidad y edad de la población para los años de 1990, 2000 y 2010, se identificó que el comportamiento espacial de las variables resulta similar independientemente del carácter colonial o fronterizo de dichas ciudades, por lo tanto, se propone la utilización de la temporalidad como un factor alternativo que permite identificar las características generales de la estructura urbana de las ciudades medias mexicanas.<hr/>Abstract: This article aims to contribute to the generation of knowledge about the urban expansion of medium -sized cities -defined as medium-sized cities that can have a density of up to one million inhabitants-, for this, in first instance, it was necessary to understand the main theories and explanatory models that have been generated to explain this phenomenon. In this sense, the contributions of González (2009) and Munizaga (2014), who review the classical postulates and highlight the main contributions to understand the organization and distribution of the cities, and at the same time, those morphogenetic contributions that come from the hand of the German School promoted in 1899 by Schlüter are remarked, whose contributions are positioned as a pointer for the analysis of the evolution of cities, being taken up by various schools -for example, the North American Cultural School and the School of Anglo-Saxon historical geography, among which the English School stands out -or also called Coenziana School-, which focused on studying the transformations that arose in the urban landscape and that overlapped in a cumulative manner. Based on this theoretical framework, it was decided to carry out research that takes into account the genesis and historicity of the city, a factor that according to some authors (Carballo, 2007) can still be studied in order to determine what is the role of time in architecture of the city. In this tenor, the objective of this text will be to verify how the urban structure of the medium cities and their evolution take on meaning from the positioning of a temporality that impacts its conformation in an indistinct manner. To do this, we seek to understand the evolution of the urban space of 6 Mexican cities from their growth zones, in order to identify the similarities and differences in the evolution of three border cities in northern Mexico established in the XIX century and Early XX -Ciudad Juárez, Mexicali and Tijuana- and three cities of colonial origin -Guanajuato, Mérida and Morelia- founded in the sixteenth century. To achieve the aforementioned objective, a methodological design has been implemented, based on the statistical data of the XI, XII and XIII General Census of Population and Housing of the Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI, 1993, 2002, 2012), for which four indicators have been revisited for its analysis: population density (inhabitants per hectare), percentage of population under 12 years of age, percentage of population over 65 years of age, percentage of migrant population from another state and percentage of uninhabited housing. The census information recorded by Áreas Geoestadísticas Básicas Urbanas (AGEB) has been analyzed and interpreted with the help of cartography that testifies to the historical growth and allows the identification of the growth stages of the aforementioned cities. From the data and the establishment of temporary divisions, data has been manipulated and aggregated, in order to calculate the indicators previously indicated by growth period, in search of a spatial distribution pattern. It can be assumed that the central spaces of colonial cities retain a different function in the urban structure than the centers of the cities located on the northern border. Affirming the above, the data provided allow us to verify that there are significant differences between intraurban zones in medium-sized cities according to their period of urban growth, likewise, in light of the data collected we can affirm that urban spaces in Mexican middle cities evolve -progressively- depending on the period of growth of the city to which they belong; instead, the urban space of a certain period presents an evolution and characteristics similar to intraurban spaces of the same period in other cities, in other words, the results of the research allow us to identify that the spatial behavior of the selected variables is similar regardless of the colonial or border character of those cities. On the other hand, based on the indicators studied, it has been identified that the evolution of the intraurban space of the six cities analyzed shows close similarities since 1990. All this seems to confirm the use of temporality as an alternative factor that allows us to identify the general characteristics of the urban structure of Mexican middle cities, which could be consolidated as a key element to explain its functioning and evolution, therefore, it is proposed to continue exploring its impact on national phenomena and contemporary urbanization, without neglecting the multifactorial and dynamic nature of cities. <![CDATA[Evaluation of Gaps in Urban Infrastructure in Neighborhoods in Viña del Mar, Chile: a Methodology for the Identification of Urban Deserts]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt resumen está disponible en el texto completo<hr/>Abstract: The configuration of urban household areas has gained relevance from evidence suggesting that the quality of cultural, health, educational or recreational infrastructure in neighborhoods plays a key role in the improvement or deterioration in the conditions of structural disadvantage of certain social groups. From a political perspective, the distribution of urban property is a core element of Welfare Status. Today, likely in response to the functional specialization that prevails in today’s urban centers, this issue has gained a central importance as a strategy to fight urban inequality. This is evidenced in the call of the UN Habitat III initiative to build cities having an adequate network of services and public spaces, aimed at promoting inclusive areas the local inhabitants. The configuration of household areas is a topic deserving investigation in Latin America, as it challenges the concept of the city as a place where human needs are resolved. In Chile, a survey on urban quality of life conducted by the government reveals data showing gaps in urban infrastructure across household areas of different socioeconomic levels, as well as low levels of use and appreciation of cultural and recreational areas available in neighborhoods. In this regard, 71% of respondents to the urban quality of life survey conducted by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Development in 2010 evidences that the deficit of green areas is a serious issue in the city. At the same time, 51.3% points to a nil or virtually nil use of parks and squares in their cities. These data document that we have learned to build cities fitted to resist earthquakes, at the expense of neglecting the physical and emotional well-being of the inhabitants. By focusing on reducing the housing deficit, we have disregarded the development of socially homogeneous neighborhoods with poor infrastructure. The Chilean policy on urban development has established the need to advance urban planning and management tools under spatial fairness criteria. The National Council for Urban Development has proposed a system of urban indicators and standards that seek to monitor the development of the Chilean city. However, this challenge demands methodologies for a precise diagnosis of those urban areas with the highest deficit in terms of infrastructure and services. With the city of Viña del Mar as a study case, we developed a methodology for the identification of urban deserts (MIDU) to assesses the distance of each block to a set of urban equipment considered basic (squares, gymnasiums, libraries, health care centers, schools, supermarkets) using the spatial analysis ARCGIS, in three household areas across the city (Miraflores Alto-Miraflores Bajo; Forestal; and Población Vergara). The aspects investigated were potential differences in accessibility to urban infrastructure between neighborhoods of different socioeconomic level; percentage of blocks located beyond the maximum distances to urban infrastructure resources recommended in literature guidelines; types of infrastructure resources with the best/worst accessibility levels in the areas studied. For Miraflores Alto and Forestal, the analysis shows an intensive urbanization pattern regarding housing but deficient in cultural and recreational resources. There is an emerging urbanization model that disengages the basic urban structure (population, services, mobility), favoring single-function housing schemes that minimize the role of proximity infrastructure in meeting everyday human needs. This represents a partial reasoning regarding urban development, exacerbated by informal urbanization processes at the metropolitan edges. In a scenario where urban management requires objective diagnostic tools, the MIDU methodology allows a detailed analysis of the supply of urban infrastructure in household areas, identifying with precision the existence of infrastructure "deserts" in specific areas of the city. The analysis derived from the MIDU methodology is a basic input for the development of urban investment plans under a social redistribution criterium. In this sense, the improvement the impact of policies dealing with healthcare, sports, public libraries or recycling, starts by acknowledging the neighborhood as the first scale for implementation and measurement of these initiatives. More than a matter of urban design, this directly impacts on the permeation of social policies, i.e., in the ability of policies to be linked and influence the organization of the daily life of local inhabitants. The Chilean city will be more inclusive when no girl or elderly adult live beyond a ten-minute walk from a playground or library. The democratization of the urban quality of life starts by building significant places in the citizen’s everyday environment. <![CDATA[Tailings dams in the northwestern portion of the state of Sonora: a geographical approximation through remote sensing]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La minería es una de las actividades impulsoras de la economía que más contamina el medio ambiente. Los desastres por derrames en presas de jales mineros en todo el mundo así lo indican. En estas circunstancias, un reto es desarrollar esta actividad garantizando la sustentabilidad del entorno, y para ello es necesario contar con un diagnóstico real del estado de conservación y funcionamiento de estas instalaciones. Esta tarea es difícil de lograr debido a la poca supervisión de las dependencias oficiales responsables, a la falta de un catastro público confiable de estas instalaciones y a la dificultad para obtener datos del lugar por las restricciones de las compañías mineras. Con el fin de contribuir a la elaboración de un diagnóstico, en este trabajo exploratorio se propone la metodología del Índice J empleando la percepción remota para la localización preliminar de instalaciones mineras de cobre. Su aplicación en el noreste del estado de Sonora, una importante área minera donde se encuentra la mina de cobre más grande de México, permitió identificar el 100% de las minas de cobre señaladas por el Servicio Geológico Mexicano. La aplicación del Índice J en otras zonas permitiría localizar presas de jales y excavaciones mineras de cobre de una manera confiable, relativamente rápida y a bajo costo, así como la identificación de lugares adicionales con características espectrales similares, información útil para que las autoridades responsables verifiquen en campo lo que ocurre en dichos lugares.<hr/>Abstract: Water is a key driver of development, since the well-being of societies are entirely dependent on the use of this resource. Since the availability of freshwater in the world is often limited in quality and quantity, a sustainable and balanced harmonization of the multiple uses of water is a complex task, considering the varied and different types of social, economic, political and environmental interests that unavoidably compete with each other given the limited availability of the resource. For its part, mining is one of the key drivers of the economy; on the one hand, it is a major job-creating activity which translates into regional economic development and, on the other, mining is highly predatory on the ecological environment in the territory where it operates, and regularly requires extensive environmental mitigation works. Ore concentration methods are multiple, according to the mineral mined; those dealing with metallic mining often produce enormous amounts of pollutants, as they involve the use of high concentrations of catalysts diluted in large volumes of water. These require large containment structures during the ore refining stages and the final disposal of non-usable wastes, called Tailings Dams. The challenge in the near future is to conduct this operation while ensuring environmental sustainability through Integrated Water Management, involving the coordinated management of all uses, demands by and needs of the different social, economic, environmental and political stakeholders. A first step would be issuing a solid diagnosis of the state of conservation and operation of mining facilities both operating and out of operation. This is a complex task, given the poor supervision of government agencies in charge, the lack of a reliable public cadastre of these facilities, and the difficulty involved in gathering on-site data due to the restrictions imposed by private operating companies. The use of Remote Sensing to establish the geographic location of these mining facilities, in addition to offering advantages versus traditional methods, may be the only viable alternative for this purpose in some cases. Aimed at the development of this diagnosis, this exploratory work developed the "J-Index" methodology that uses Remote Sensing for the preliminary location of tailings dams and currently operating and out-of-operation copper mining facilities; the primary objective is to facilitate its implementation by using current technologies that are broadly available, low-cost, quick, and easy to use; moreover, these should mitigate to some extent the constraints regarding resources, time and ease of access to the areas studied for monitoring the operation of such facilities. The study area is located in the northwestern part of the State of Sonora. This includes the high portions of the Rio Sonora basin, a traditionally important mining area where the largest copper mine in Mexico is sited, and where the mining waste spill occurred in August 2014. The construction and validation of the J-Index used photo interpretation of satellite images obtained from the Internet at Google Earth; the use of the Normalized Difference Water Index obtained from free images of the Sentinel-2 satellite of the European Space Agency; the list of the major mines currently operating or projected elaborated by the Mexican Geological Service obtained free of charge through the National Platform of Transparency; the list of users of underground sources developed by the Public Register of Water Rights obtained from the National Water Commission website; and the public software for analysis of Geographic Information Systems called Quantum GIS. Its application in the northeastern part of the State of Sonora allowed validating its effectiveness in locating all the tailings dams and open-pit excavations of the known copper mines; also identified were areas corresponding to natural dams or lagoons not previously identified, with spectral characteristics similar to those of tailings dams and/or mining excavations. This will allow a more accurate focus in the additional field evaluations by both the relevant authorities and the mining companies themselves, to determine in greater detail the operating conditions, maintenance, and preventive and corrective measures, as applicable, to ensure a correct operation. The reapplication of this methodology in other parts of the world will allow the identification of potential mining facilities, both currently operating or out of operation, that may involve potential hazards related to operation failure and their effects on the ecosystem. <![CDATA[Territorial Structure of Tourism in Santiago, Nuevo Leon, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Este trabajo tiene como finalidad revelar la estructura territorial del turismo en Santiago, Nuevo León, municipio perteneciente a la zona metropolitana de Monterrey. Se explica, desde un punto de vista geográfico, el arreglo y articulación del turismo en el territorio, y para ello se alude a la distribución de los recursos naturales y culturales, así como de la infraestructura y servicios que atienden a esta actividad económica, y se examina la procedencia geográfica de los visitantes, que transitan por distintos canales de comunicación hacia Santiago. Los resultados indican que la demarcación municipal posee una diversidad de recursos, en particular de índole natural, que soportan su promoción como destino turístico; sin embargo, el crecimiento del turismo en esta localidad depende, en gran medida, de lo que acontece en la ciudad de Monterrey, lugar de pernocta de una proporción importante de los visitantes que llegan a Santiago y desde donde se promociona la llegada de turistas a esta localidad. Se trata de un ejemplo de destino turístico supeditado a una gran metrópoli en términos de accesibilidad, servicios y conectividad.<hr/>Abstract: Tourism has become a highly relevant economic activity at a global level; over the past decades, both the number of tourist visits worldwide as well as tourism revenues have risen exponentially. In 2016, Mexico ranked eighth (with 35 million tourists) in the hierarchy published by the World Tourism Organization each year based on the international tourist arrivals to each country (OMT, 2017). That same year, tourism contributed 8.7% to the Gross Domestic Product, a figure greater than the respective global number, which is close to 3.0 %. In this context, this work aims to unveil the territorial structure of tourism in Santiago, Nuevo León, a municipality within the Monterrey Metropolitan Area (ZMM), one of the major urban areas of Mexico, characterized by vigorous industrial and commercial activities. Being located within the influence area of Monterrey city, which receives 2252 126 visitors each year, Santiago is part of the supplementary tourist offer to the local urban and business tourism. To explore the landscape effects of any economic activity in a given space, the concepts of structure and territorial organization proposed by the Soviet School of Geography and applied to research on the Geography of Tourism facilitate the analysis of the territorial arrangement the tourism economy, both throughout history (territorial organization) and today (territorial structure). Studies on territorial organization identify the physical-geographical foundations and the social structure that support the development of an economic activity, and the historical processes that have delineated it over a specific space. In the case of Santiago, the arrangement and articulation of tourism in the territory is explained from a geographical standpoint, based on the distribution of natural and cultural resources, as well as on infrastructure and services that sustain this economic activity. The geographical origin of visitors arriving in Santiago through the various transportation media is also examined, The methodology used in this study includes two parts: first, documentary research work to gather geographic and historical information on the study site, from a variety of bibliographical and cartographic sources, both in Mexico City and in Monterrey. Second, field work conducted in the municipality of Santiago between October 2014 and November 2017, with two purposes: on the one hand, conduct an in-situ verification and analysis of the spatial distribution of tourism resources and services and, on the other, investigate the reasons for traveling to and the mobility of tourists visiting Santiago, by administering questionnaires and conducting semi-structured interviews with residents and visitors. The results indicate that the study area offers a diversity of resources, particularly natural, that support its promotion as a tourist destination. However, the growth of tourism in this locality largely depends on the events in Monterrey, where a significant proportion of Santiago visitors spend the night, and from where tourism to this locality is promoted. The territorial tourism offer of Santiago includes the historical center of the municipal head, as core of the distribution and concentration of tourism and recreation. The geographical origin of visitors is dominated by Mexican tourists, particularly Monterrey residents (60% of total visitors surveyed); foreigners account for just 7%. The transportation media and services linked to the tourism economy, in addition to promoting Santiago as a target tourist destination in the state of Nuevo León, focus on the Monterrey metropolitan area; these resources facilitate a continued flow of visitors, mostly nationals and, in particular, local residents of the state capital. Santiago is home to three of the key sites promoted by the State government to be visited from Monterrey: the Cola de Caballo waterfall, the La Boca dam, and the Santiago historical center. The infrastructure of accommodation and restoration services in the municipality is scarce and unspecialized, a situation that is likely to result from its geographical proximity to Monterrey, a city that concentrates the offer of accommodation and tourism services of different categories. Currently, this circumstance restrains the expansion of Santiago as a tourist destination. This study illustrates an example of a tourist destination that is subordinated to a large metropolis in terms of accessibility, services and connectivity. <![CDATA[Public Policy Networks: Analysis Of Flood-Risk Management In The High Valley Of Cauca River, Colombia]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: En Colombia, la temporada invernal 2010-2011 se manifestó con intensas lluvias que originaron vastas inundaciones, en varias zonas del país. En el Departamento del Valle del Cauca las pérdidas fueron significativas tanto en sus centros poblados como en los espacios rurales. Para hacer frente a esta situación el gobierno colombiano expidió alrededor de cuarenta y un decretos, desde diferentes carteras ministeriales, orientadas a la generación de recursos económicos y creación de nuevos ministerios, que pudieran atender de manera efectiva y oportuna a la población en riesgo, y prever la atención adecuada en posibles eventos futuros similares. No obstante, una de las mayores dificultades para superar y corregir estas situaciones, radica en la capacidad real de establecer intervenciones articuladas y coherentes entre los diversos actores sociales, públicos y privados, que intervienen en la gestión del riesgo. Ello, que se materializa a través de las denominadas “Redes de política”, se configura en el objeto central de la presente investigación; analizar, desde este enfoque, cómo se establecen las relaciones entre los actores públicos y privados localizados en el área del corredor del río Cauca y las tensiones y alianzas que se generan entre ellos desde la colisión o convergencia de intereses particulares, según el caso. Los resultados muestran que hay avances importantes frente al proceso de conformación de la red; sin embargo, se identificaron dificultades en el relacionamiento con y entre los actores sociales; además existen problemas de gobernabilidad institucional frente a las autoridades ambientales.<hr/>Abstract: In Colombia, the winter season 2010-2011 was characterized by heavy rains that led to widespread flooding in various areas of Colombia. In the Department of Valle del Cauca, significant losses were reported both in villages and in rural areas. To cope with this situation, the Colombian government issued around forty one (41) decrees from different ministerial portfolios, in order to produce economic resources and create new ministries that could respond effectively and in a timely manner to the population at risk, and provide adequate attention in case of potential similar events. Given the complexity of the actors converging within the same territory, the productive sector represented by sugarcane farmers, the municipal administrations of three departments, the local communities, the Autonomous Regional Corporations (CARs), and the academic sector, an an analysis with a theoretical support from the Public Policy Network approach is required; from it, the true capability to establish articulated and coherent interventions involving the social, public and private actors involved in risk management is reviewed. This is the core objective of the present investigation; this analyzes the relationships between public and private actors located in the corridor of the Cauca river, and the tensions and alliances between them resulting from the collision or convergence of interests, as the case may be. Interactive techniques were used, such as workshops, meetings, semi-structured interviews, and field visits/trips were carried out in the context of the project “Conservation Corridor and Sustainable Use of the Cauca River System”, as part of the agreement between Corporación Autónoma del VAlle (CVC) and the Dutch Government. The source information of the analysis of the relationships between the social actors identified (either subjects or organizations) in flood-risk management allowed establishing interaction patterns through the use of matrices and graphs that contribute to the systemic and concise representation of the information, describing the actors according to the relationships with others rather than based on their individual attributes (Williner, 2012). This analysis was performed through an “Experts Workshop” involving professionals of the project’s interdisciplinary team from Agricultural Engineering, Water Resources, Environmental Law, Geographic Information Systems, Civil Engineering, Integrated Management of Hydric Resources, and Social Work. In these workshops, experts scored in double-entry matrices, the interaction, influence, and trust among the actors identified; these were processed through the platform UCINET 6, which produced the network structure, density, centrality (actor power), intermediation, interrelations and trust map, and influence among the different actors. (Williner, 2015). The results show that, based on relationships across the social actors identified in the network and their impact on decision-making, there are important advances in the formation of a network. However, there are difficulties in the relationships among the social actors analyzed, given the existing interests that currently define more tensions and conflicts than alliances and coordination. That is, there is a flood-risk management network in place in the High Valley of the Cauca River, since the designed and implemented policy involves the various actors, the interdependence between them and their resources, and a condition and duration beyond flooding events. However, this is still an incipient non-institutionalized network that lacks internal processes to regulate actions with and across all stakeholders, in terms of their formal participation within the network, frequency of meetings, coordination of tasks, and mechanisms for decision-making control and monitoring. Also, this study revealed that the local environmental authorities currently face issues regarding institutional governance, weak administrative management in their areas of responsibility, and unresolved issues related to the inconsistency in the application of standards. Finally, the incorporation of new actors to these decision-making processes are key to transform existing power relations in the public-private relationship. Thus, local communities, water user associations, Risk Management Municipal Councils (CMGR) are encouraged to participate more directly in these processes, which does not imply the weakening of public participation, but instead, the strengthening of the governance and democratization processes of decision-making by the State. <![CDATA[Vulnerability and Risk in Valle de Chalco Solidaridad, Estado de Mexico, Mexico. Case Study: El Triunfo, Avandaro and San Isidro]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Identificar, caracterizar y evaluar sitios geoculturales. Trabajo de campo en el Geoparque Mundial UNESCO Mixteca Alta]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Springer, S. (2016). <em>The anarchist roots of geography. Towards spatial emancipation</em>. Minneapolis, Univerity of Minnesota Press, 230 pp. ISBN 978-0-8166-9773-1]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Thomaz, Luís Filipe Ferreira Reis. <em>La expansión portuguesa: un prisma de muchas caras.</em> Bogotá: Universidad de los Andes. 325 pp. ISBN 978-958-774-347-0]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Krieger, P. (2017). <em>Epidemias visuales El Neobarroco de Las Vegas en la Ciudad de México</em>. <em>Visual epidemcs.</em> Las Vegas Neo-Baroque in Mexico City. Daniel Escoto Editores, México. 325 pp., ISBN 978-607-97491-0-1]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Edward Brooke-Hitching (2018). <em>El Atlas Fantasma</em>: <em>grandes mitos, mentiras y errores de los mapas</em>. Blume, Barcelona, 256 pp., ISBN 978-84-16965-26-7]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Sevilla Buitrago, Á. (Ed.) (2017). <em>Neil Brenner. Teoría urbana crítica y políticas de escala</em>. (Colección Espacios Críticos 9). Barcelona, Icaria Editorial. 292 pp. ISBN 978-84-9888-735-8]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Benach, N. (Ed.) (2017). <em>William Bunge. Las expediciones geográficas urbanas.</em> (Colección Espacios Críticos, núm. 10). Icaria Editorial, Barcelona. 260 pp., ISBN 978-84-9888-778-5]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Nogué, J. (ed.: 2018). <em>Yi-Fu Tuan. El arte de la geografía</em>. (Colección Espacios Críticos, núm. 11). Icaria Editorial, Barcelona. 262 pp., ISBN: 978-84-9888-815-7]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Anthias, P. (2018). <em>Limits to Decolonization. Indigeneity, Territory, and Hydrocarbon Politics in the Bolivian Chaco</em>. Ithaca, Cornell University Press. 295 pp., ISBN 978-1-5017-1428-3 (versión digital)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Lavinas Picq, M. (2018). <em>Vernacular Sovereignties: Indigenous Women Challenging World Politics</em>. Tucson, University of Arizona Press. 236 pp., ISBN 978-0-8165-3735-8 (versión digital)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Mundy, B. E<em>.</em> (2018). <em>La muerte de Tenochtitlan, la vida de México</em>. México, Grano de Sal. 469 pp., ISBN 978-607-97732-8]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Muestra <em>Pageant of the Pacific</em>. Mapas de Miguel Covarrubias. Biblioteca Justino Fernández, Instituto de Investigaciones Estéticas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. Ciudad Universitaria, Cd. Mx., del 5 de junio al 15 de octubre 2018]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300023&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo <![CDATA[Estado del arte de la investigación periglaciar en México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112018000300024&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Irregular communities established in the border of large cities usually have high levels of vulnerability and in some cases, the exposure to natural and man-made hazards result in great damage to these populations. Valle de Chalco Solidaridad (VCS) is an example of this kind of communities. VCS is a municipality in the State of Mexico, Mexico, located in the old Chalco Lake to eastern of Mexico City. The natural environment of VCS has been dramatically modified because of the overexploitation of the local aquifer that has caused subsidence in most of its territory. Floods are also common in VCS, mainly associated to failures of the walls of the local wastewater canal called “La Compañía” (LCC) causing severe damage to the local population. Thus, the most common local hazards are subsidence and flooding although because of its geographical location, VCS is also prone to the impact of large earthquakes from the Mexican subduction zone. LCC was an open-air sewage canal that collects domestic water from two municipalities in the State of Mexico: Valle de Chalco Solidaridad and Chalco. At present, LCC is a piped sewage canal. On 2000, 2005, and 2010, districts of VCS were severely damaged due to failures of LCC. The objective of this study is to estimate the levels of vulnerability and risk to floods of VCS. To complete our work, we also considered the vulnerability and risk to earthquakes and subsidence. Our research was constrained to the communities of El Triunfo, San Isidro, and Avandaro by considering independent assessments of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities as well as of the global vulnerability. We adapted the Community Vulnerability Assessment Tool (CVAT) developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) to estimate vulnerability. Data for our research was collected from field works on March-April 2010, and from scientific and governmental sources. In our study we considered global vulnerability as the average of the social, economic and structural vulnerabilities. The spatial distributions of each studied vulnerability was represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS) considering five levels of vulnerability: very low, low, moderate, high and very high. For the social vulnerability we evaluated aspects like communication among neighbors, social characteristics of the population such as age, disability and education level. For the economic vulnerability we considered elements like income, economical dependence and main economic activity of the family. For the structural vulnerability we took into account construction material, structural reinforcements, geometry of construction, number of stories, among other factors. The spatial distribution of risk was determined superposing the local GIS flood, seismic, and subsidence hazard-map layers over the global vulnerability map. Risk was characterized by using the same five levels of vulnerability. These risk maps allow us to identify those priority areas to implement mitigation actions. Our methodology can be considered as a first approximation of risk and provides a qualitative tool to support civil protection authorities to develop a disaster prevention program as well as to implement public policies for risk mitigation. Our results indicate that the majority of the population of VCS has moderate and high levels of social vulnerability and that practically all territory has high and very-high economic vulnerability. Most households in the study area have moderate and high level of structural vulnerability. About one third of the studied population is in high and very high risk to flooding. Seismic and subsidence risks are moderate and high, respectively. Small areas have moderate global vulnerability. High and very high flood risk is constrained to those families located near the high-risk flooding areas. The factors that were identified that increase vulnerability in VCS are: 1) Lack of knowledge about the existing levels of local hazards; 2) Poor structural housing conditions; 3) Failures of LCC’s infrastructure; and 4) High exposure of vulnerable people. Our methodology allows determining the spatial distribution of vulnerability and risk. However, for a complete analysis, it is necessary additional studies to assess those factors that condition the social construction of risk. The results of this work identify those areas where mitigation measures are needed and provide the basis for decision makers to implement risk reduction actions in VCS. We also believe in the need for developing a program to reduce structural vulnerability to both, earthquakes and floods. For the urban development planning of VCS, subsidence and earthquake risks should also be taken into account. Thus, the development of public policies for risk prevention and mitigation are also required.<hr/>resumen está disponible en el texto completo