Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Investigaciones geográficas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=0188-461120170001&lang=pt vol. num. 92 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt <![CDATA[Geomorphology and sedimentology of badlands system in the southwest coastline of Castle Araya, Sucre State, Venezuela]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: El área de estudio se ubica en la costa al suroeste de Araya en el Estado Sucre, entre los 10° 33’30’’ N, 10°33’59” N y 64°15’32’’ O, 64°15’36’’ O, la cual se encuentra afectada por procesos erosivos que impactan a los pobladores que allí se asientan. La investigación se centró en analizar los procesos geomorfológicos que allí tiene lugar, basada en un modelo de campo con diseño no experimental, en niveles descriptivo y explicativo, operacionalizado en tres fases: a) campo, b) análisis de imágenes y c) laboratorio. El acantilado afectado por la erosión retrograda tipo cárcavas está constituido por un material franco-limoso cuyo análisis de rocas totales muestra una abundancia de arcillas (52%), oxido de silicio (28%), carbonato de calcio (18%), plagioclasas (5%), sulfuro de hierro (5%) y carbonato de hierro (2%); por su parte, el análisis de arcillas en fracción menor a dos micras muestra como predominantes: la caolinita (47%), ilita (39%), clorita (14%) y esméctita (1%). Se trata de un regolito dispersivo, con muy bajo contenido de MO, que favorece la ocurrencia de corriente de derrubio, suelo y desplome de la roca, detonado posiblemente a partir del leve incremento en las precipitaciones registradas entre julio y noviembre, así como las fuertes pendientes del terreno, lo que ha generado un retroceso del contorno apical estimado en 1.31 m*año−1.<hr/>Abstract: The study area is located in the south-west coast of Araya in Sucre State, between 10° 33’30’’ N , 10°33’59’’ N y 64°15’32’’ W, 64°15’36’’ W, which it is affected by erosion processes impacting the population center that sits there. Hence the research is to analyze the geomorphological processes developed, based on a model no-experimental and design field, in descriptive and explanatory levels, operationalized in three phases: a) field, to collect 21 samples of surface sediment (0-20 cm) distributed in 12 samples in the first badlands and 9 samples in the second and lift the morphometry of these landforms erosion; (b) image analysis, three stages such as the development of thematic maps from the Topographical maps of Cumana, Geological Araya Peninsula and The Cadastral Charter covered: Punta Caracare; followed by drawing sketches of gullies, from the data collected in the field, refer to height, length and width of the land. Corresponding to the last two variables data were corrected by the equation suggested by Wolf and Ghilani (2008), for data collected on slopes using measuring tape; and finally drawing the sketch of the apical cliff line drawn from the interpretation of the captured images of Google Earth for the years 2003, 2006, 2009 and 2011, based on the proposal of Soriano (2009) and (c) laboratory, to analyze the comportamientode physical properties such as: hygroscopic water content, determined by gravimetric method, based on the arguments presented by Rivera, et al. (2006) and Toledo (2009); size distribution of the particles (Method Bouyoucos) following the protocol reported by Lara (1985); Percentage of dispersion and soil (double hydrometer method) based on the specifications referred by porters and Alva (1999). As for the chemical-mineralogical properties, it was determined from 10 samples analysis of total rocks and clay mineralogy, for both analyzes samples were prepared, processed and analyzed in the laboratory Diffraction x-ray (XRD), assigned to the Departmental Management Exploration PDVSA-INTEVEP. Being used for analysis brand PANalytical diffractometer X’Pert model equipped with a curved crystal monochromator graphite (Cu Ka radiation) and operated by the X-Pert Data collector LTU PW3240 / 92 (version 2.2b) software, applying a range scanning of 5 ° θ 45 ° θ. For all rock and θ 2 ° to 35 ° θ clay minerals for less than 2 microns (&lt;2μ) fraction. As to biochemical properties, the organic carbon were analyzed on the floor (COs) using in method Wlakley and Black, reported by Arrieche and Pacheco (sf) and Toledo (2008), and content of organic matter (MO) by the conventional factor Vammelen, referred to by Navarro (2007) and Toledo (2008) and checked against the proposal by PALMAVEN (1992) qualitative scale In general, you have to cliff erosion affected by the retrograde type badlands, It consists of a material silt loam, total analysis rocks which shows an abundance of clay (52%), silicon oxide (28%), calcium carbonate (18%), plagioclase (5%), iron sulfide (5%) and iron carbonate (2 %), meanwhile, clays analysis lesser fraction two microns shows as predominant: Kaolinite (47%), Illite (39%), Chlorite (14%), and Smectic (1%). This is a dispersive and expansive regolith, with very low organic matter content, which favors the occurrence of current washout, soil and collapse of rock, possibly detonated from the slight increase in rainfall recorded between July and November, as well as the steep terrain, which has generated a decrease of apical contour, estimated at 1.31 m * year−1. <![CDATA[Estimating volume of deposits associated with landslides on volcanic landscapes in the SW flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, Puebla-Veracruz]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt resumen está disponible en el texto completo<hr/>Abstract: Landslides that occur along river systems are very common and have the potential to cause harm to human, to its infrastructure or affect their socio-economic activity. This dynamic is magnified in territories where morphological contrasts are very marked; as in the border between the mountains and subhorizontal land. This is especially true for volcanic terrains where volcanic activity can trigger voluminous landslides along stream systems by sector and flank collapse and where high seasonal rainfall on terrains covered by poorly consolidated materials produces small but hazardous landslides and debris flows that occur continually along stream systems during the volcanic repose periods. Those type of landslides can deliver volumes of hundreds and millions cubic meters that create a potentially hazardous situation for people and property down the valleys. The study of landslides in volcanic terrains through a Geographic Information System (GIS) and under a geomorphological criterion, have allowed to develop a comprehensive methodology linked to the development of multi-temporal inventory, with susceptibility and volume estimation of displaced material. The aim of this research is to develop a method (protocol) for landslide susceptibility and landslide volume assessment of potentially unstable volcanic landscapes in order to be helpful in mitigating landslide damages to human settlements. Pico de Orizaba volcano is the highest volcano in Mexico. The volcano has been affected by large flank collapse landslides throughout its geological history. These events have partially destroyed the cone as it happened in Bezymianny volcano and St. Elena volcano. In this volcano, the risk associated with landslide and debris flows, is increased by the growing of human settlements along the hillslopes and by the subsistence agriculture, and deforestation. This situation is favored by a volcanic calm that has lasted 147 years, approximate. These conditions create a dangerous situation for more than 360 000 people living on the southern flank of the volcano Pico de Orizaba, where landslides along the hillslopes and the river system threaten towns like Cordova, Orizaba, Rio Blanco, Nogales and Ciudad Mendoza. Today the most common and dangerous landslides are associated with unconsolidated volcanic deposits and heavy seasonal rains. In this paper, the cause, distribution, and link between landslides and the volcanic landscape relief susceptibility are analyzed. Similarly, the volume of displaced material is estimated in order to characterize the landslide instability in volcanic terrains. The Río El Estado watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano is selected to describe and analyze susceptible areas of gravitational processes. The study area allows to show a systematic methodology for landslide mapping and volume calculation in areas with scarce information. The methodology encompasses three main stages of analysis. In the first stage, background information is collected to provide context and establish a generalized characterization of landslide processes, landsforms and volumes within the study area. Background information includes the following maps: topographic, geologic, land use, climate, slope, slope curvature, contributing area, flow direction, saturation, reclassified hypsomety, reclassified slope, and morphography. By retrieval and on-off switching of the background information in the GIS, a base map is created to assist in the digitizing of landslides. The base map and the theoretical aspects of the geomorphological mapping help to develop a conceptual base of support for mapping landslides. Landslides are digitized directly into a geographic information system (GIS), and in parallel, a spatial geo-database of landslides attributes (eg. size, volume, activity, landslide type, etc.) is constructed. Previous landslide mapping in the study area is verified and new landslides are added to the landslide inventory. Once the locations of landslides are mapped and evaluated, similar potential landslide areas are grouped into individual landforms. During the second stage, the volcanic relief is analyzed under a geomorphological criterion based on aerial photographs, fieldwork, and detailed mapping and the results are adjusted to the landslide hazard zonation protocol from Washington State, Department of Natural Resources, USA. For each volcanic landform a semi-quantitative susceptibility rating is obtained from values that correspond to the total area of landslides and the number of landslides within each landform; and they are normalized for the total period of time spanned between sets of aerial orthophotographs (fourteen years period). These normalized variables are referred to as the landslide area rate and the landslide frequency rate, respectively. Finally, for the third stage, the volume of material delivered by landslides to the main river is estimated by using an empirical area-volume relationship. The results allow us to understand the long-term evolution of the fluvial system in southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano. They also show a useful mapping methodology for developing inventories, assessing susceptibility, and estimated volumes associated with landslides in volcanic terrains. <![CDATA[Discussing school socioeconomic segregation in territorial terms: the differentiated influence of urban fragmentation and daily mobility]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Chile is one of the OECD countries with higher levels of socioeconomic segregation in its educational system. This may be explained by the incidence of institutional factors (fees and school selection processes), sociocultural factors (families’ appraisals and behaviors towards school choice) and contextual factors, among which residential segregation would stand as the most relevant. This article analyzes the relation between school location, students’ socioeconomic status and student’s place of origin (mobility). The data used was gathered from 1613 surveys responded by primary students’ families. The results evidence that residential segregation only partially influences educational socioeconomic segregation, since the capacity of mobility is a key factor to “break” the association between both phenomena. Therefore, residential segregation would affect to a greater extent low socioeconomic status students who attend schools near their homes and travel distances shorter than children from higher socioeconomic status, who tend to cover longer distances between home and school. Nevertheless, the comparative analysis of the cases complicates drawing conclusions, because students of equal socioeconomic status travel very different distances. The characteristics of the territories where schools are located shed some light on the cause of these differences. From these results, we propose re-discussing the use of the residential segregation concept for explaining phenomena like school segregation, due to the complex interrelations between both territorial fragmentation and urban mobility.<hr/>Resumen: Chile es uno de los países OCDE que exhibe mayor grado de segregación socioeconómica en su sistema escolar. Esto se explicaría por la incidencia de tres factores: institucionales (como los cobros y procesos de selección de estudiantes por parte de las escuelas), socioculturales (valoraciones y comportamientos de las familias frente a la elección de escuela) y de contexto, entre los que la segregación residencial aparece como el más relevante. Este trabajo analiza la relación entre localización de las escuelas, composición socioeconómica del alumnado y procedencia (movilidad) del mismo. La información utilizada proviene de 1 631 encuestas a familias de alumnos de enseñanza primaria. Los resultados evidencian que la segregación residencial influye sólo parcialmente sobre la segregación socioeconómica escolar porque la capacidad de movilización es un factor determinante para “romper” la asociación entre ambos fenómenos. La segregación residencial afectaría en mayor medida a estudiantes de nivel socioeconómico bajo que asisten a escuelas en las inmediaciones de sus hogares, recorriendo distancias menores que niños de niveles socioeconómicos superiores quienes tienden a movilizarse más entre casa y escuela. Sin embargo, el análisis comparativo de los casos complejiza esa conclusión, porque estudiantes del mismo nivel socioeconómico pueden recorrer diferentes distancias. Las características de los territorios donde se localizan las escuelas parecen tener relación con tales diferencias. A partir de los resultados del estudio se plantea rediscutir el uso del concepto de segregación residencial para explicar fenómenos como la segregación escolar dada la complejidad de las interrelaciones entre procesos de fragmentación territorial y movilidad cotidiana. <![CDATA[Effect of slope and stoniness on the distribution of rainwater, its quantification and application to the study of vegetation in arid zones]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt resumen está disponible en el texto completo<hr/>Abstract: For the correct distribution of vegetation in an area, it is essential to manage accurate information on the variables that condition information. Most likely, the parameter that determines further the type of vegetation that can grow in one place is the amount of water available to plants. In this sense, and leaving aside the formations linked to watercourses, lakes, etc., the main source of this resource is the rain. Thus, the study of the distribution of vegetation in any territory is closely related to the analysis of rainfall it receives. To know the amount of rainwater that receives a zone always uses data provided by meteorological stations located in the same. The data collected by these stations are applied to a hypothetical, uniform and flat surface. This information is accurate enough when the scale at which it works is small (1: 100,000, 1: 50,000), but when it requires greater detail, especially in arid areas where the vegetation structure is open and the soil directly receives much of the rainfall, soil conditions exist that determine the distribution of rainwater and therefore access to this resource plants. Two of these variables, perhaps the most important are the inclination and the presence of rocky outcrops or stoniness on the floor. In short, our job is to propose different mathematical models that allow to know the actual amount of water available to plants, we call A. This value is obtained from rainfall data (P), relating to the sloping terrain and the percentage of it occupied by rocks (af). The relationship between precipitation and tilt gives us a value we call the real precipitation (P’), which is lower the greater the inclination, since the amount of rainfall should be distributed over a larger area. The amount of rocky outcrop increases runoff, accumulating water in the earthy areas between the rocks, so a higher percentage of stoniness in soil involves an accumulation of water in the surrounding soil. Thus a model that allows both better explain the distribution of vegetation in arid areas and on large scales (: 25.000 or higher 1) is provided. To test the model and test its usefulness, it has made a study of it in different localities in arid areas of the island of Gran Canaria, one of the Canary Islands. On this island 14 towns located in arid environments, with precipitation always less than 200 mm/m2 were chosen. Among these locations, with similar climatic conditions, there is a very important plant diversity. Most are occupied by a crasicaule very open scrub dominated by Euphorbia balsamífera, called tabaibal de tabaiba dulce, typical of the most barren areas of the Canary Islands, and considered the potential of its arid and hyper-arid vegetation areas. But other situations are occupied by a lush vegetation: the cardonal, almost totally enclosed high scrub, dominated by Euphorbia canariensis, the cardón; and even formations characterized by the presence of a undertree thicket where different woody species such as Olea cerasiformis, wild olive, Juniperus turbinata subsp. canariensis, the sabina, and even the Canary Island pine, Pinus canariensis. These same plant formations appear as potential in areas with higher rainfall, so its presence in these arid areas should be related to some variable affecting the distribution of water resources. For each of these locations was made calculating the amount of water available to plants, obtaining results that meet the alleged contradiction to find different types of vegetation, with different water requirements in the same climatic zone. Thus it is improving the proposed model provides when it comes to study how vegetation is distributed in arid and territories detail scale is checked. It is clear that as we decrease the scale of the study of the distribution of vegetation in any territory, it is essential to increase the parameters analyzed, especially if it comes to analyzing the situation of vegetation in arid, where the structure of vegetation and seasonality of rainfall make the characteristics of the substrate affect significantly to the presence of vegetation way. Given the scarcity of water resources in these ecosystems, any aspect influencing the availability of water for plants will be of great importance for understanding distribution. <![CDATA[Monitoring of urban growth in the state of Hidalgo using Landsat images]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La detección de la expansión urbana a través del procesamiento digital de imágenes satelitales proporciona información valiosa para el conocimiento de la dinámica del cambio de uso del suelo y su relación espacial con factores ambientales. Para aplicar o generar políticas efectivas de planeación del territorio es indispensable contar con un registro histórico de la distribución regional de los asentamientos humanos, elemento que en nuestro país es prácticamente nulo. Por esta razón, este texto tiene por objetivo determinar la tasa de crecimiento urbano durante el periodo 2000-2014 en el estado de Hidalgo, México, e identificar las zonas potenciales de expansión a partir de imágenes Landsat. Se utilizaron seis escenas Landsat para el análisis espacial de la cobertura urbana estatal y se evaluó su relación con el área de influencia vial. Como productos cartográficos se obtuvieron dos mapas: uno de distribución de la cobertura urbana y otro de los municipios con mayor expansión, cuyas áreas están localizadas en la región del Valle del Mezquital. Sin embargo, Mineral de la Reforma, Tetepango, Tizayuca y Pachuca de Soto se destacan por sus tasas de crecimiento durante el periodo de estudio: 183.44%, 102%, 94% y 68.5%, respectivamente. En total, la superficie urbana estatal aumentó 72.3 km2 del 2000 al 2014 con una tasa de crecimiento promedio de 1.8% por año. Dicho crecimiento se asoció con las áreas de influencia de infraestructura vial importante, como el Libramiento Arco Norte en Hidalgo. Por lo tanto, se considera al Valle del Mezquital y la Cuenca de México como regiones potenciales de expansión urbana en el estado.<hr/>Abstract: Detection of urban growth through digital processing of satellite images provides valuable information for understanding the dynamics of change of land use and its spatial relationship with environmental factors. To apply or create effective policies for land use planning is essential to have a historical record of the regional distribution of human centers and in our country this kind of geographical data-base is practically null. Although Mexico has an update and complete mapping of land use, this poses great challenges. Within this issue, the Hidalgo state destines half of its territory to agricultural use, nonetheless, ranks fifth nationally in road infrastructure density. In the last decade, the current highway “Arco Norte” that crosses the southern state has promoted economic development in several neighboring municipalities and many of them were integrated into the Management Programme of the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico 2012. Given this background, this paper is focused on the generation of geographic information for regional urban planning and the overall aim is to examine urban growth rate during the period 2000-2014 in the state of Hidalgo, Mexico and identify potential areas of expansion from Landsat images. The methodology was based on techniques of remote sensing and Geographical Information System (GIS). The inputs used were six Landsat scenes: three for 2000 year and three for 2014. Image processing was performed on ERDAS Imagine® 9.1 and the spatial analysis of urban coverage statewide on ArcGIS 10.0 by ESRI®. First, the radiometric correction was made and we obtained the urban polygons of the 2000 year through of supervised classification. The 2014 urban layer was digitized manually due to the spectral incompatibility between the bands of the Landsat sensor 5 and 7, and the Landsat sensor 8. Then, we build a road density map and the spatial relationship of the urban centers with the road influence area was evaluated. For the year 2000, 103 urban polygons were mapped, whilst for 2014 were identified ten polygons more with a mapped minimum area of 24 ha. The main results indicated that in the state has increased 72.3 km2 urban area from 2000 to 2014. This represents an average growth rate of 1.8% per year. The most widespread municipalities are located in the region of Valle del Mezquital, however, Mineral de la Reforma, Tetepango, Tizayuca and Pachuca showed growth rates of 183.44%, 102% 94% and 68.5% in fourteen years, respectively. According to the road map density, these municipalities are located in areas of greatest influence of infrastructure as the Arco Norte highway in the state. The above findings, lead us to conclude that the Mezquital Valley and the Basin of Mexico are potential areas of urban spreading and it is associated with road development in the Central Mexico. <![CDATA[Implementation of Forest Condition Index (FCI) as an input for the design of forest public policies in Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Las políticas públicas (PP) se definen como aquellas acciones diseñadas, implementadas y evaluadas por el gobierno, que operan a través de programas, cuyo fin último es mejorar o solucionar problemas sociales a corto y largo plazo. Una deficiencia recurrente en el diseño de las políticas públicas es la falta de análisis de la complejidad del contexto territorial. Por lo anterior, el objetivo de este estudio se centró en desarrollar el Índice de Condición Forestal como instrumento que provee una referencia espacial robusta para fortalecer el diseño de PP de corte forestal ad hoc para cada territorio. Los insumos del Índice de Condición Forestal son datos que describen la dinámica tanto del grado de marginación como de la cobertura vegetal durante el periodo 2000-2010 de los municipios de Michoacán como estudio de caso. Los resultados demuestran que existen grupos de municipios con tendencias significativamente disímiles y que por ende experimentan problemáticas y desafíos contrastantes. Se concluye que cada territorio requiere un diseño de políticas púbicas de corte forestal adecuado a su condición para lograr su efectividad a corto y largo plazo. Se discute la relevancia de los resultados a la luz de la etapa de diseño de las políticas públicas y las consecuencias con respecto al grado de vulnerabilidad de los territorios al suponer que una misma PP se aplica igual en territorios tan disímiles.<hr/>Abstract: Public policies (PP) are defined as actions designed, implemented and evaluated by governments operating through programs, with the ultimate goal to improve and solve social problems in the short and long term. I theory, PP should be designed considering, among other things, basic social, economic and environmental information of the areas where such programs derived. However, a common deficiency in the design of public policies for the management of forest resources in Mexico is the lack of analysis in the complexity of a territorial context, which directly affects the results of the PP. This variable is relevant in Mexico, due to the great heterogeneity of the territory, so the results in the implementation of programs and projects arising from forest PP, usually lacks of a fundamental theoretical basis for obtaining better results. Thus, the objective of this study is the development of a methodological framework that incorporates the spatial variable to improve the design of forest PP ad hoc to each territory. The Forest Condition Index (FCI) was designed and implemented as an instrument to provide a robust spatial reference by assessing forest condition in contrast to the degree of marginalization of municipal entities. The inputs for the FCI describes the dynamics of the degree of marginalization and the dynamics of plant cover during the period 2000-2010 of all municipalities in the state of Michoacan, used as a study case. The application of the FCI to the 113 municipalities in the state, results in the categorization of municipalities in 4 classes, depicting possible trends between marginalization and forest cover. The largest number of municipalities (31), which represents 35.78% of the state’s land, were grouped in class IV, indicating a trend in the increase the index of marginalization and the decrease in forest cover. Only 26 municipalities were located in Class I, revealed a favorable trend with a decreasing rate of marginalization and an increasing on the forest cover. The identified classes, showed that there are significantly differing trends between municipalities, indicating different problems and challenges. We argue that social vulnerability may affect negatively or positively by the availability of forest cover. This consideration is based on the opportunity that sustainable use of the forest represents to access financial resources, and thus impact directly on the social and economic welfare of the population established in areas where forest management is main economic activity. According to the results of the FCI, it is necessary to propose an adequate model of PP design, according to the environmental condition of the territory, that allow a gradual increase of forest cover (conceived as the natural capital) and lower rates of marginalization through a model of sustainable use of forest resources. We emphasize the design of PP given the steps involved to improve forest conditions, such as processes of forest restoration, soil management, social organization, which together carry long periods of time. It is concluded that each area requires a design appropriate forest PP their condition to achieve their short- and long-term effectiveness. We discussed the relevance of results of the FCI in the light of forest public policies and their consequences in the degree of vulnerability of the territories in the consideration that the same PP applies for diverse areas. We highlight the work that is required for the PP design, in the fact that it is a crucial moment in the cycle of the PP. The FCI is proposed as an input for forest PP design that uses public information, seeking to improve efficiency in forest PP. <![CDATA[The climatic-environmental significance, status and socio-economic perspective of the grown-shade coffee agroecosystems in the central mountain region of Veracruz, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Climate and vegetation coexist in a dynamic equilibrium. However, lack of vegetation can cause local and regional climate changes. Grown-shade coffee agro-ecosystem provides resources, environmental services and socio-economic benefits. We found that coffee production has decreased but its economical value has increased; however, the socio-economic indicators decreased. High deforestation rate is causing changes in the precipitation patterns and fog frequency, contributing to an environmental and socio-economical crisis in the region. This work presents an analysis of the influence of local and regional climate on the grown-shade coffee in central Veracruz, and the factors involved in land-use change with the respective consequences for the coffee producers.<hr/>Resumen: El clima y la vegetación coexisten en un equilibrio dinámico. Sin embargo, la falta de vegetación puede causar cambios climáticos locales y regionales. Los agroecosistemas del café de sombra proveen recursos, servicios ambientales y beneficios socio-económicos. Se encontró que la producción de café ha disminuido pero su valor económico ha incrementado; sin embargo, los indicadores socio-económicos han disminuido. La alta tasa de deforestación está causando cambios en los patrones de precipitación y en la frecuencia de niebla, lo que contribuye a la crisis ambiental y socio-económica de la región. Este trabajo presenta un análisis de la influencia del clima local y regional en el café cultivado a sombra en el área central de Veracruz, así como los factores que intervienen en el cambio de uso de suelo con las respectivas consecuencias para los productores de café. <![CDATA[Assessment of the landscape connectivity of the Puuc-Chenes region, Mexico, based on the habitat requirements of jaguar (<em>Panthera onca</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La región Puuc-Chenes está ubicada en el centro de la Península de Yucatán. Debido a que está rodeada por tres áreas naturales protegidas, constituye un importante eslabón para mantener la conectividad de la selva maya. Sin embargo, la expansión de la frontera agrícola en la región está favoreciendo la fragmentación del hábitat del jaguar (Panthera onca). En el presente estudio hemos analizado el grado de conectividad del paisaje para la región Puuc-Chenes con base en los requerimientos del hábitat de P. onca. Se usaron los programas ArcMap, FRAGSTATS e IDRISI para el análisis de la conectividad estructural y funcional del paisaje, el cual se basó en las diferencias conocidas de los requerimientos de hábitat para machos y para hembras. La selva fue la cobertura vegetal dominante al ocupar 49.8% del paisaje. El índice de contagio fue del 62.5% y el índice de contraste total de los bordes fue de 43.7%. De acuerdo con nuestros resultados, concluimos que la región Puuc-Chenes presenta una conectividad de paisaje estructural intermedia, ya que se identificó un corredor adecuado solo para machos y tres corredores para ambos sexos. Este estudio aporta elementos robustos basados en evidencias científicas que justifican la conservación de cuatro fragmentos de selva en la región Puuc-Chenes para preservar la conectividad del paisaje para Panthera onca en esta región.<hr/>Abstract: The Yucatan Peninsula is included as part of the initiative for the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor. In its central area, are located three Protected Natural Areas (PNA): the Biocultural Puuc Reserve (RBP, by its Spanish acronym), the Bala’an K’aax flora and fauna protected area (APB, by its Spanish acronym), Quintana Roo, and the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve (RBC, by its Spanish acronym), Campeche. The Puuc-Chenes region is located in the center of the Yucatan Peninsula - among these PNAs - which included important fragments of vegetation that in the past formed a continuum through the forests of the Yucatan Peninsula, constituting an important link to keep the connectivity of the Mayan forest. However, the expansion of the agricultural frontier is causing the fragmentation of the habitat. In the present study, the structural and functional connectivity of the Puuc-Chenes region is analyzed, based on habitat requirements of the Panthera onca (jaguar) by sex. Both, male and female, prefer tropical forest, however, P. onca males dare to transit in secondary vegetation and inclusively in agricultural areas. Males make inroads to villages more often than females, coming close to, and even crossing roads. P. onca males have a home range of 60 km2. In the present study, the ArcMap, FRAGSTATS and IDRISI software were used to analyses the structural and functional connectivity of the landscape, based on the known differences of habitat requirements for P. onca males and females. A vegetation and land use map of the studied area was elaborated, based on Landsat 7 ETM+ images, with 30 m size pixels. The following cover classes were differentiated: tropical forest, secondary forest, agriculture, urban, and water polls, which were validated in the fields. The Puuc-Chenes has an extension of 972 578 ha. Tropical forest was the dominant vegetation cover (49.8%) with the largest patch index covering 19.7% of the total landscape. The landscape had 2 509 fragments, from which 1 254 y 935 corresponded to secondary forest and anthropic patches, respectively. The contagion index was 62.5%, which indicates the existence of large and contiguous fragments. The total edge contrast index indicates the degree of landscape connectivity was 43.7%, meaning a medium contrast among the different class fragments. Likewise, forest had the highest area-weighted mean proximity index (PROX_AM de 8 701), confirming that the forest had bigger and less isolated fragments than the rest of the classes. The area of study, still have high value for the conservation of the habitat of the P onca. According to the results, we conclude that the Puuc-Chenes region has intermediate structural landscape connectivity, since a suitable corridor was identified for males and three corridors for both, males and females. Four priority fragments of forest were identified in the Puuc-Chenes landscape to be protected: the Puuc fragment with 1 916 km2, the Chenes fragment with 1 380 km2, the X’Panzil fragment with 679 km2 and the Noh-Ha fragment with 88.5 km2, which in total adds 4 063 km2 of identified landscape for the conservation of the jaguar. It is important to stress that the Puuc fragment —which has the largest extension— presents a high degree of perforation, this means, it does not conform a continuum forest mass, since other class of patches are immerse in it, which affects its connectivity and quality as a jaguar habitat. It was found that the habitat extension for the P. onca in the Puuc-Chenes landscape added to the adjacent ANPs’ area conform 15 943 km2, this ensure the persistence of the jaguar in the region. However, this zone has strong anthropic pressures, due to the expansion of ethnic groups and the establishment of new agricultural colonies in the Hopelchén municipality, resulting in extensive agriculture and use of heavy machinery, application of inorganic fertilizer and pesticides, which have detrimental effects in soil restoration and therefore in forest restoration. These changes are producing a cascade of negative effects for the habitat and game of the jaguar. For the reason that the jaguar is a cryptic organism, it is suggested to carry out more research in order to validate the identified corridors in the present study, utilizing field methods that enable to determine the presence and absence of the P. onca. It is also important, to elaborate habitat quality maps using variables such as game density, ecological conditions of the fragments and minor water sources, among them provisioning of minor water sources. This study provides robust elements based on scientific evidences that justified the conservation of four forest fragments in the Puuc-Chenes region that will help to preserve the habitat of the Panthera onca in this region. <![CDATA[Detection of trees damaged by pests in <em>Abies religiosa</em> forests in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve using infrared aerial photography]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Las plagas forestales son agentes que ocasionan daños de tipo mecánico o fisiológico a los árboles, como deformaciones, disminuciones en el crecimiento, debilitamiento o incluso la muerte, causando un impacto ecológico, económico y social importante. En este estudio se desarrolla una técnica para la detección de plaga forestal por medio de fotografías aéreas infrarrojas. El uso de fotografías aéreas digitales en color e infrarrojo permitió obtener imágenes VIR (visible + infrarrojo) con cuatro bandas y una resolución aproximada de un metro por pixel. Mediante la interpretación visual se logró reconocer y localizar árboles con algún estado de deterioro e incluso individuos muertos. Se analizó una superficie de 1 907 ha en sierra Chincua, donde la mayor afectación se dio en zona núcleo con 97 puntos (62%) con más del doble de densidad de individuos (11 árboles/km2) en comparación con la zona de amortiguamiento (4 árboles/km2). Este mayor daño es debido a las políticas de manejo forestal, que establecen el no manejo (incluido el saneamiento) en la zona núcleo. Las fotografías aéreas digitales son útiles para la detección de árboles dañados en los bosques de oyamel mediante la interpretación visual con una eficiencia del 98%. El méto do utilizado tiene una mayor relación costo-efectividad comparado con sobrevuelo de helicóptero y trabajo de campo.<hr/>Abstract: Forest pests are pathogens that cause mechanical or physiological damage to trees, such as deformations, disrupted growth, weakening, or even death, leading to important ecological, economic and social impacts. This study focused on the development of a technique for the detection of forest pests using infrared aerial photography. The general reflectance characteristics of healthy and damaged leaves are currently well known; Reid (1987) already described these features, with a shift toward blue and a reduced infrared reflectance as the dominant effects. As the plant disease progresses, the above effects become more apparent. The use of infrared digital aerial photographs allowed to obtain VIR (visible + infrared) images with four bands and a resolution of approximately one meter per pixel. Trees with some degree of deterioration and even dead individuals were identified and located through visual interpretation. Color and infrared digital aerial photographs captured in March 2009 were used; two cameras were used: a Nikon D2X camera for the acquisition of images in the visible range (EV), and a Canon EOS Digital Rebel camera for infrared (IR) images. Once individual photographs were processed and organized, V and IR images were superimposed using the Photoshop editing program (Adobe™) Once composite V+IR (VIR) images were obtained, those covering the sampling area were selected and georeferenced. Rectified images were required to elaborate a mosaic encompassing the sampling area. The rectified images and the final mosaic had a spatial resolution of 90 centimeters per pixel. The detection technique was designed using three methodological approaches: automatic, semi-automatic and manual processes. The semi-automatic and automatic modalities correspond to an assisted and unassisted spectral classification, respectively, while the manual method consisted in the direct observation of the photographs processed. The technique developed used as basis the photographic mosaic of the sampling area. The unassisted and assisted spectral classification technique was carried out in the ERDAS Imagine image-processing software package. For the unassisted classification, tests were carried out considering various numbers of categories: 5, 10 and 15; the assisted classification included the spectral properties of each category used for the partition to group images into five categories: healthy forest, diseased forest, Juniperus scrubland, bare soil and shaded areas. The accuracy of the technique for the detection of damaged trees was verified through field work, visiting different checkpoints where the health status of the tree was corroborated by direct observation and infrared photography at ground level. A representative sampling area of the A. religiosa forest was established in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (RBMM), sufficient to encompass the largest number of damaged trees, but not so large as to excessively prolong the information-processing phases and make field sampling unattainable. The analysis comprised an area of 1907 ha in Sierra Chincua, where the greatest affectation was observed in a core zone including 97 points (62%) with more than twice the density of individuals (11 trees/km2), relative to the buffer zone (4 trees/km2). This greater damage is the result of forest management policies, which have set no management (including sanitation) in the core zone. At the end of this research work, we concluded that digital aerial photographs proved useful for the detection of damaged trees in Abies religiosa forests of RBMM. It is possible to obtain multispectral images using a low-cost photographic technology that is relatively simple and widely available. Our study showed that the best method to detect damage in A. religiosa forests in RBMM is the visual interpretation of aerial photographs, yielding a detection efficiency of over 98%. The method used has a greater cost-effectiveness compared to helicopter overflight and field work. Likewise, the method developed in this research work is a contribution to the detection of forest pests. <![CDATA[Methodology to develop maps of susceptibility to mass removal processes, case analysis south slope of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Importancia del trabajo comunitario participativo para el establecimiento del Geoparque Mundial de la UNESCO Mixteca Alta, Oaxaca, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100012&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Zezza, F. (2014), <em>Venezia città d’acqua. Le incidenze geologiche su origini, evoluzione e vulnerabilità</em> Marsilio Editori, Venecia, 168 pp., ISBN 978-88-317-1951-3]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100013&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Muñoz Gutiérrez, C. (2015), <em>El paisaje habitado</em>, (Cuadernos de Horizonte, 6), La Línea del Horizonte Ediciones, Madrid, 96 pp., ISBN 978-84-15958-37-6]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100014&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Moreno Carranco, M. (2015), <em>Geografías en construcción: el megaproyecto de Santa Fe en la Ciudad de México</em>, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, México, 280 pp., ISBN 978-607-28-0617-7]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100015&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Ramírez Velázquez, B. R. y L. López Levi (2015), <em>Espacio, paisaje, región, territorio y lugar: La diversidad en el pensamiento contemporáneo</em>, (Colección: Geografía para el siglo XXI, Serie: Textos Universitarios, núm. 17), Instituto de Geografía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Unidad Xochimilco, México, 207 pp., ISBN 978-607-02-7615-6]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100016&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Saraví, G. A. (2015), <em>Juventudes fragmentadas. Socialización, clase y cultura en la construcción de la desigualdad</em>, Centro de Investigaciones y Estudios Superiores en Antropología Social y Facultad Latinoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, México, 296 pp. ISBN 978-607-9275-63-1, ISBN 978-607-486-305-5]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100017&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Araque Jiménez, E. (2016), <em>Los últimos pineros. El transporte fluvial de madera desde las Sierras de Segura y Cazorla (1894-1950)</em>, Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad de Jaén, Jaén, 221 pp., ISBN 978-84-16819-40-9]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100018&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Bartlett Díaz, M. y Vargas, R. (2016) <em>Reforma energética: el poder duro y consensuado para imponerla,</em> Promographics/Senado de la República, México, 291pp., ISBN 97-607-00-9979-3]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100019&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Coll-Hurtado, A. (2016), <em>Espacio y ocio: el turismo en México</em>, (Colección: Temas Selectos de Geografía de México. I. Textos monográficos, 5. Economía), Instituto de Geografía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, 168 pp., ISBN 978-607-02-8505-9]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100020&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Ibarra García, M. V. e I. Escamilla Herrera (Coords. 2016), <em>Geografías feministas de diversas latitudes. Orígenes, desarrollo y temáticas contemporáneas</em>, (Colección: Geografía para el siglo XXI, Serie: Textos Universitarios, núm. 18), México, Instituto de Geografía,Facultad de Filosofía y Letras, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. 239 pp., ISBN 978-607-02-8506-6]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100021&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor. <![CDATA[Exposición fotográfica: “Paisajes pesqueros campechanos y yucatecos: tradición y modernidad”, Instituto de Geografía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Cd. Mx., 6 de marzo al 7 de abril de 2017]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112017000100022&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La ciudad de Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas ha presentado históricamente procesos de remoción en masa en la zona sur del valle, específicamente en los depósitos de talud cuya génesis se determina a partir de la mesa kárstica de Copoya, geoforma sometida a intenso fracturamiento, procesos de disolución y erosivos, que dan como resultado el desprendimiento de grandes bloques. Estos se distribuyen en las márgenes de la mesa, siendo alterados y destruidos por intemperismo, del cual se generan partículas de menor tamaño que reposan sobre limolitas, lutitas y areniscas. Esta condición determina que las laderas sean inestables por naturaleza. El Mapa de Amenazas por Procesos de Remoción en Masa (PRM) se elaboró a partir del método heurístico con combinación de análisis multicriterio, y determina cinco niveles de amenaza en la zona urbana, abarcando los siguientes porcentajes: muy baja 5%, baja 27.1%, media 39.3%, alta 15.3% y muy alta 13.3%, siendo esta última la que se distribuye en su mayor parte en los depósitos de talud, alrededor de la Mesa de Copoya, lo que confirma su situación de máximo peligro. Para Tuxtla Gutiérrez se calcula una población expuesta de aproximadamente 62,500 habitantes (11.6% del total) que residen tanto en la parte sur de la ciudad como en 30 localidades rurales asentadas en los flancos de la mesa de Copoya; se estiman poco más de 28,000 viviendas expuestas agrupadas en 850 manzanas. Las tendencias actuales del crecimiento de la ciudad hacen evidente la necesidad de ordenar y reglamentar las nuevas edificaciones.<hr/>Abstract: The city of Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, has historically presented processes landslides in the southern part of the valley, specifically in deposits of slope whose genesis is determined from La Mesa karst of Copoya, geological forms subjected to intense fracturing processes dissolution and erosion, giving as a result the breaking into large blocks. These are distributed in the margins of La Mesa being altered and destroyed by mechanical and chemical weathering, which generated smaller particles that rest on siltstones, shale and sandstones. This condition determines that the slopes are unstable by nature. A 1000 x 1000 m grid was constructed, corresponding to the canvass of the Mercator Transverse Universal Coordinate System (UTM) of the topographic map scale 1:50 000 (INEGI, 1984; INEGI, 2004; Lugo-Hubp, 1988). In each cell a centroid was generated to apply the interpolation process and draw isolines. For numerical variables such as drainage density and unevenness, defined ranges (number of equal intervals) were used by ArcMap software (version 9.3). For the non-quantitative variables such as geology, edaphology and soil use and vegetation, the same AHP method was used, obtaining numerical values for the cartographic representation. In all three cases, the normalized values and a Consistency Index (CI) and Consistency Ratio (CR) (the latter according to the dimension of the matrix) were obtained, below 10%, so that the weights are correct. In order to obtain information on the changes in the use of the ground, images of Google Earth of 2006, 2008 and 2010 were revised. Subsequently, a very high resolution orthophoto was added (pixel of 0.2 m), obtained for cadastral purposes by Town Hall of Tuxtla Gutierrez between the end of 2012 and the beginning of 2013. Finally, five layers of information are defined, one for each variable, and the final result overlaps with the events recorded in the last nine years (2006 to date), which shows that the areas classified as Very High Threat are the more susceptible to the occurrence of these events. It is to be expected that in time, the incidence of this type of phenomena is manifested in the levels of High and Very High Threat. Applying the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) developed by Saaty (1988), which consists of matrix analysis and involves value judgments. In this way the matrix of preference over the selected criteria was generated, obtaining the weighting of the five chosen variables. It was important the knowledge of the study area, the documentation and local studies generated to date, where the criteria of the specialists are taken up. The process was done in an Excel spreadsheet (2007 version), applying the corresponding formulas. Because only five variables and the size of the area (250 km2) were handled, no specialized software was required. With the data obtained a table was created in which a column with the name of “Threat” was created, which corresponds to the sum of the parameters of the six criteria mentioned above. This is reflected in the Map of Threats by Mass Removal Processes. Thus, in the one the extreme values are included in a range from 0 to 1. The map of hazard by removing processes in mass or landslide (PRM), was developed from the heuristic combination of multi-criteria analysis method, and determined five levels of threat in the urban area, covering the following percentages: Very Low 5%, Low 27.1%, Middle 39.3%, High 15.3% and Very High 13.3%, the latter being distributed mostly in slope deposits around La Mesa of Copoya, confirming their status as maximum hazard. For Tuxtla Gutierrez is estimated a population exposed about 62,500 inhabitants (11.6% of the total) (537.102 inhabitants in the urban area) who reside both in the southern part of the city and 30 rural towns settled on the flanks of La Mesa of Copoya; estimates about 28,000 dwellings exposed grouped into 850 blocks. Current trends in the growth of the city, make evident the need to manage and regulate new buildings. Although the southern slope is determined unstable by nature, on the northern the housing complexes are changing the slope geometry sets, which can be a trigger for the occurrence of landslide in the short and medium term factor.