Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Investigaciones geográficas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=0188-461120150003&lang=es vol. num. 88 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Evaluación de prácticas de conservación de suelos forestales en México: caso de las zanjas trinchera]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Las zanjas trinchera constituyen la principal práctica de conservación de suelos realizada en México y se implementa indistintamente en diversas condiciones geográficas y ecológicas, sin evaluar su impacto. En este trabajo se evaluaron las zanjas trinchera como práctica de conservación de suelos en 28 sitios distribuidos en siete estados (Baja California Sur, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Michoacán, Tlaxcala y Veracruz), mediante la caracterización del medio físico, la descripción y análisis de suelos, así como entrevistas a los dueños de la tierra. Los principales resultados señalan que la construcción de esta obra genera un gran número de impactos negativos. Entre ellos, la remoción de suelos como consecuencia de la excavación, la cual puede movilizar de 60-123 ton/ha y la exposición de 0.4-6.3 ton/ha de carbono orgánico en la superficie. Los resultados mostraron también que esta práctica no mejora las condiciones de retención de humedad, necesarias para sostener la reforestación asociada y no son adoptadas por la población. Los resultados y la revisión de literatura permitieron identificar ciertas condiciones ambientales recomendadas para la construcción de zanjas trinchera, como un clima árido y semi-árido (aproximadamente 300 mm de precipitación promedio), rango de pendiente (hasta 40%), suelos poco profundos (menos de 20 cm) y sin horizonte arcilloso y con una vegetación rala y discontinua.<hr/>Given the intense soil degradation that spans almost half of Mexico, the Mexican government has establis-hed various public policies in which soil conservation practices are carried out by the owners in return for a subsidy. The main practices promoted on forest soils by these programs are mechanical, in particular, the construction of ditches. Nowadays this practice is the main soil conservation practice held in Mexico and carried out in various geo-graphical and ecological conditions; however its impact is not assessed. The international literature specifies that the goal of this practice is to facilitate the storage of rainwater in arid and semi-arid ecosystems, to reduce the length of water flow, to conserve water and promote the afforestation in degraded environments and to regúlate water runoff in urban áreas. Unlike the international experience, in Mexico this practice seeks to preserve and restore forest soils. This work aims to assess the ditches from the perspective of a practice that allows the forest soil conservation and to identify environ-mental and social conditions under which this practice may be appropriate in Mexico. The evaluation of ditches as a soil conservation practice was performed in 28 sites in seven states (Baja California Sur, Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Querétaro, Michoacán, Tlaxcala and Veracruz), addressing different ecosystems, from arid to humid tropical, expressed in a wide variability of soils and vegetation (scrub, pine, oak forest, grassland and maize). In each site we characterize the physical environment, with an emphasis on soil analysis, erosión features, infiltra-tion measures as well as interviews with landowners. Measu-rements were made in sites with and without (control sites) ditches. Infiltration was measured on the pile of excavated soil where the trees for reforestation are planted. The main findings indícate that the construction of the ditches result in a large number of negative impacts. Among them, the removal of soils as a result of the excavation of 250 ditches per hectare (recommendation of the policy pro-gram), which can mobilize 60-123 ton/ha. Given the depth of the ditch (40 cm), the removal also causes the exposition of 0.4-6.3 ton/ha of soil organic carbon, which is susceptible to mineralization. In terms of hydrologic regulation, this practice does not improve the conditions of moisture retention, which is necessary for a successful reforestation. Nowadays this practice is not adopted by the landowners. The biggest single benefit received for performing these work, either in private property or common use areas is the economic resource that the program provides. In any case was observed willingness of people to increase the area of trenches, reflecting the weak appropriation around this practice. The results and the literature review helped to identify certain environmental conditions under which the construction of ditches may be adequate: arid or semi-arid climate (aprox. 300 mm average rainfall), slope range up to 40%, shallow soils (less than 20 cm) without a clay horizon and sparse and discontinuous vegetation. These recommenda-tions were presented and discussed with decision makers and were subsequently introduced into the National Forest Program (PRONAFOR). <![CDATA[Análisis dendroclimático de <strong><em>Pinus pseudostrobus</em></strong> y <strong><em>Pinus devoniana</em></strong> en los municipios de Áporo y Zitácuaro (Michoacán), Reserva de la Biósfera de la Mariposa Monarca]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300019&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Se presenta el primer estudio sobre dendroclimatología de Pinus pseudostrobus y Pinus devoniana en el estado de Michoacán (México). El estudio se realizó en los municipios de Áporo y Zitácuaro de la Reserva de la Biosfera de la Mariposa Monarca (RBMM). Se colectaron cien testimonios de madera tomados a 1.3 m de altura del árbol, repartidas en los ejidos del Rincón del Soto y Arroyo Seco (Áporo), y en el ejido de San Juan de Zitácuaro. Las series dendrocronológicas en Áporo para la especie Pinus pseudostrobus se extendió a 62 años (1949-2010) y para Pinus devoniana 86 años (1925-2010); y las series en Zitácuaro para Pinus pseudostrobus y Pinus devoniana se extendieron a 47 años (1964-2010) y 44 años (1967-2010), respectivamente. Con el objetivo de establecer los parámetros climáticos que controlan el crecimiento radial de las especies estudiadas, se encontró que la serie potencial para hacer estudios dendrocronológicos es la de Pinus pseudostrobus en Zitácuaro. El valor de la serie de Pinus devoniana se encuentra ligeramente por debajo (0.81) del valor de aceptación (0.85). Las series de crecimiento radial se compararon con datos climáticos de precipitación mensual, temperatura media mensual, temperatura máxima y mínima medias mensuales, de estaciones meteorológicas cercanas al área en estudio. Las funciones de correlación indican que la anchura de los anillos de ambas especies está regulada significativamente por la precipitación y la temperatura máxima media en Zitácuaro. Ambas especies reaccionan semejantemente con el clima, pero con algunas diferencias. Para Pinus pseudostrobus hay una relación positiva del crecimiento radial con el aumento de precipitación en el mes de abril del año actual; y hay una relación negativa del crecimiento radial con el aumento de temperatura máxima media en el mes de agosto del año previo. Para Pinus devoniana hay una relación negativa del crecimiento radial con el aumento de precipitación en el mes de noviembre del año previo, y una relación positiva en febrero del año actual; y hay una relación negativa del crecimiento radial con el aumento de temperatura máxima media en los meses de julio y agosto del año previo.<hr/>This article presents the first study on dendroclimatology of Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana in the state of Michoacán (Mexico), specifically in the municipalities of Áporo and Zitácuaro, both municipalities within the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve (MBBR). The sampling in Áporo, northwest of the MBBR, was held in Los Ejidos del Rincón del Soto and Arroyo Seco, in Sierra Chincúa (May 2011). In Zitácuaro, southwest of the reserve, a sampling was performed in the Ejido de San Juan de Zitácuaro, in the area of Ocotal and Palma, and Meso Sedano (June 2011). There were a total of 38 Pinus pseudostrobus and 12 Pinus devoniana sampled in both areas of the study and distributed in 28 trees in the municipality of Áporo and 22 in Zitácuaro. Two samples per tree were taken at 1.3 m height, resulting in a total of 100 tree cores. The dendrochronological series in Áporo for the species Pinus pseudostrobus were extended to 62 years (1949- 2010) and for Pinus devoniana 86 years (1925-2010); and the series in Zitácuaro for Pinus pseudostrobus and Pinus devoniana were extended to 47 years (1964-2010) and 44 years (1967-2010), respectively. The ring chronologies were validated using the program COFECHA, which calculates the cross correlations between individual series of the tree-growth, five series were eliminated due to very low or negative correlations. The climate data from Zitácuaro were obtained from two weather stations located in the same municipality. And, in the case of Áporo, the data was obtained from stations located in Senguio. The growth rates related to the climate were obtained by removing the growth trend of each tree due to the age, size and other factors such as the competition, using the program ARSTAN. The following statistics were used to evaluate the quality of the residual chronologies and to determine the potential dendrochronology of species for the different populations: the average correlation between series (Rbar), the signal expressed by the population (EPS), medium sensitivity (MS), and the auto-correlation of first order (AC). To analyze the correlation and the function of response between the radial growth and climate variables, the waste medium chronologies of the growth rates for both species, and the records of temperature and precipitation, were evaluated through the Dendroclim2002, which determines the period of the year that most influences the radial growth of Pinus in relation to monthly climate data. In order to establish the climatic parameters that control the radial growth of the studied species, the Pinus pseudostrobus was found to be the potential series to perform the dendrochronological study in Zitácuaro. The value of the series of Pinus devoniana is slightly lower (0.81) than the acceptance value (0.85). The series of radial growth were compared with the climate records of monthly precipitation, average monthly temperature, and average maximum and minimum monthly temperatures. Correlation functions indicate that the width of the rings of both species is regulated significantly by rainfall and the average maximum temperature in Zitácuaro. Both species react similarly to the climate, but with some differences. There is a positive relationship between radial growth of Pinus pseudostrobus and the increasing rainfall in April of the current year; and there is a negative relationship between radial growth and the increasing average maximum temperature in August the previous year. For Pinus devoniana there is a negative relationship between radial growth and the increasing rainfall in November of the previous year, and a positive relationship in February of the current year; and there is a negative relationship between radial growth and the increasing average of maximum temperature in July and August last year. <![CDATA[Relación clima-vegetación: adaptaciones de la comunidad del jarillal al clima semiárido, Parque Nacional Lihué Calel, provincia de La Pampa, Argentina]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300033&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El estudio de la vegetación desde la Geografía se centra en el análisis de su distribución espacial y los factores que inciden en la misma. Uno de ellos es el clima que determina las características de las formaciones vegetales y, en una escala más grande, a las comunidades. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la relación clima-vegetación mediante el estudio de las adaptaciones de la comunidad del jarillal con respecto al clima semiárido en el Parque Nacional Lihué Calel, Argentina. Para ello se realiza el balance hídrico de Thornthwaite y Mather utilizando datos de la estación meteorológica del parque pertenecientes al periodo 1995-2010. Se aplican índices bioclimáticos y se realizan estands para conocer la composición florística y fisonomía de la vegetación. Se analizan las respuestas adaptativas identificadas en los individuos vegetales relevados y se comprueba que el clima semiárido condiciona la morfología y fisonomía del parque. Se demuestra la presencia de vegetación xerófila con predominio de arbustos y de cobertura abierta. Entre las adaptaciones observadas se distinguen la pérdida de hojas en la estación desfavorable, el reemplazo de hojas por espinas, hojas pequeñas y resinosas, inclinación de la hoja y raíces extensas.<hr/>The study of vegetation from the Geography perspective focuses on the analysis of the spatial distribution and on the factors affecting it. One of these factors is the climate, which determines the characteristics of the vegetation and, on a larger scale, of the communities. The aim of this paper is to analyze the climate-vegetation relationship by studying adaptations of the jarillal community regarding the semiarid climate in the Lihué Calel National Park, Argentina. Therefore, this contribution is concerned with the knowledge of the characteristics of the environment in order to understand how vegetation responds to certain phenomena, so management of protected areas will be more suitable. Lihué Calel National Park is a national protected area located in the south-center of La Pampa province, Argentina. According to Cabrera (1976) the area belongs to the floristic province of "monte" and the climate is warm and dry. In the interest to achieve the goals of this paper, Thornthwaite and Mather's water balance was done. The data was collected from a weather station that belongs to the national park, for the period 1995-2010. Emberger's pluviothermic coefficient, Lang's rainfall index, De Martonne' s aridity index and Currey's continentality index were analyzed. In addition, ten stands or plots of vegetation were placed to determine the floristic composition and the vegetation physiognomy. Then, plants species were identified as individuals and their adaptive responses were also analyzed. In conclusion, the survey verified that semi-arid climate conditions determine the morphology and the appearance of jarillal . Climate analysis shows that for the period 1995-2010 the average annual temperature is 16.2° C and reveals that thermal summers and winters are well differentiated. Large water deficit is defined, because water balance indicates that the evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation during every month of the year. According to Thornthwaite's criteria, the area is a semiarid climate type. With the analysis of other bioclimatic indices, more information is obtained: Lang's index value is 25.7 (arid), Emberger's index is 41.8 (semiarid), De Martonne's index is 15.9 (that refers to a semi-arid climate) and, at last, Currey's index certified the existence of a continental climate because the result was 1.16. Vegetation was surveyed and the result was quite interesting: 1 508 individuals that belong to 33 species. The percentage is: shrubs 57.6%, grasses 36.4% and Trees 6.1%. Most of them were evergreen and only some deciduous. The distribution of vegetation in Lihué Calel responds to the semi-arid conditions. Some adaptations were observed like the development of the deep root system with an horizontal pattern in order to absorb the water from the soil, the loss of leafs in the unfavorable season, the replacement of leaves by thorns, small resinous leaves, leaf tilting and extensive roots, among others. The dominant plant of the jarillal is Larrea divaricata and it is considered as a xerofite plant. The process indicates that when stomata are open, transpiration rates increase; when they are closed, transpiration rates decrease. The Cactaceae family is represented by two species: Opuntia puelchana and Cereus aethiop . They are considered succulent plants that keep humidity inside. During rainy periods they absorb large amounts of water that they then use during the dry periods. These types of studies are relevant to understand how plants adapt to different environmental events, whether they are natural and/or anthropogenic. As a reference, in 2003, major fires occurred inside the National Park and they affected 7 000 hectares. The resinous leaves of the jarilla helped to propagate the fire all around the place. The next phase of the investigation process will be related to the physiological and morphological properties, through chemical analysis, so the adaptation of vegetation can be tested. With these new studies, the final purpose will be reached: good practice for plant conservation. <![CDATA[Desertification effects on the species composition of the Caatinga biome, Paraíba/Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300045&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es A desertificação é reconhecida como uma das principais ameaças a zonas de clima seco em todo mundo. No Brasil, esse fenômeno tem atingido especialmente o bioma Caatinga, para o qual ainda existe pouca informação acerca de suas consequências na composição florística. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar este efeito em sítios inseridos em três municípios da Paraíba (Nordeste, Brasil). Sítios de amostragem foram previamente selecionados por imagens de satélite usando a técnica IVDN, seguido de um levantamento vegetacional in locu (método transecto) abrangendo ambientes não-desertificados e desertificados. Análises univariadas (teste U) e multivariadas (nMDS) foram usadas a verificar diferenças nas variáveis vegetacionais e demonstrar padrões de dissimilaridades entre os ambientes contrastantes, respectivamente. A riqueza e diversidade de plantas diferiram significativamente entre os ambientes. O nMDS identificou três grupos de plantas: i) espécies associadas a áreas não-desertificadas (Anadenanthera columbrina, Bauhinia cheilantha e Tabebuia impetiginosa), ii) espécies relacionadas a áreas desertificadas (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Jatropha molissima, Mimosa tenuiflorã e Pilosocereus gounellei) e iii) espécies presentes nos dois tipos de ambientes (Croton sonderianus, Piptadenia stipulacea e Poincianella pyramidalis). Os resultados apontaram que a desertificação desencadeou mudanças severas na composição florística da Caatinga, indicando também que as intervenções humanas foram determinantes no estabelecimento dos diferentes ambientes.<hr/>Desertification is recognized as the land degradation in arid, semiarid, and dry sub-humid zones, as a result from multiple anthropogenic impacts such as unsustainable natural resources management and land-use. In this context, the plant cover displays a crucial role due its capacity of soil protection against both terrestrial runoíFand high rates of rain infiltration. In Brazil, the desertification has reached mainly the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forest (STDF) biome, natively known as Caatinga, in which the major drivers are related to the historical severe deforestation and livestock expansion. In face of this alarming scenario, there is no or few information about direct effects driven by desertification, particularly those related to the floristic composition of aíFected areas or affected potentially areas. Herein, the aim was to assess the desertification eíFects on vegetation composition within three sites in the Brazilian semiarid zone. In order to ensure unbiased comparisons, the three sampling sites presented similar topographical, pedological and climate conditions, localized at distinctive municipality from Paraíba State, Northeastern region, Brazil. In each site, two contrasting situations were sampled, - desertified and non-desertified environments. These environments were previously selected though satellite images, using the NDVI technique, for identification of vegetation biomass level. In field, the floristic composition was surveyed by transect method, covering a patch of 50m x 4m delimitated with metric tape. In these perimeters, it was identified the specie and botanical family of each plant, richness (S) and abundance (N) of tree with DBH &gt; 10 cm. Posteriorly, it was calculated the Shannon'sα diversity (H') and Piellou's evenness (J') by Primer β software (open access). Non-parametric univariate (U test) and multivariate (nMDS) analysis were performed to verify diíFerences in the vegetational variables (S, N, H' and J') and to demonstrate dissimilarities patterns (relative abundance) for the contrasting environments, respectively. In total, twenty-six plant species were identified, belonging to thirteen families. Of this set, seventeen species (65%) were exclusive of non-desertified areas and only two species were exclusive of desertified areas. U test showed that the both richness and diversity of plants species differed significantly between the two analyzed environments. Using a subset of 10 species most common in two environments, the nMDS discriminated three groups of plants: i) species associated to non-desertified areas (Anadenanthera columbrina, Bauhinia cheilantha and Tabebuia impetiginosa), ii) species related to desertified areas (Aspidosperma pyrifolium, Jatropha molissima, Mimosa tenuiflorã and Pilosocereusgouneleii) and iii) species with high density in both environments (Croton sonderianus, Piptadenia stipulacea e Poincianella pyramidalis). Dominant species in the non-desertified areas are restricted to the environments better preserved of Caatinga, which cannot to support strong degradation condition, whereas the species most common in the desertified areas are recognized as pioneer for the biome. Occurring to the two environments, such species harbors high capacity of settlement to the either impacted or preserved environments coupled to a strong resistance and resilience to disturbance (e.g. log and burn). Finally, the results obtained pointed out that the desertification triggered pervasive changes on the vegetational components (richness and diversity) and floristic composition of the Caatinga biome, suggesting also that human-induced disturbances were determinants to the establishment of the diíFerent environments. <![CDATA[Análisis y modelación de los procesos de deforestación: un caso de estudio en la cuenca del río Coyuquilla, Guerrero, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300060&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El estudio analizó los cambios de cubierta y uso del suelo en la cuenca del río Coyuquilla, en Guerrero, México durante los periodos 1986-2000 y 2000-2011. Se elaboraron mapas de cubiertas y usos del suelo con base en la interpretación de imágenes de satélite. Durante el periodo 1986-2000 se observó una pérdida del 16% de la cubierta vegetal que afectó principalmente el bosque tropical seco con una tasa anual de deforestación de -3.7%. De 2000-2011 se observó una pérdida del 22% de cubierta vegetal y fue el bosque de encino, la cubierta que presentó la tasa más alta de deforestación (-5.54%). El incremento de los pastizales inducidos fue la principal causa de la pérdida de las cubiertas forestales. La altitud, la distancia a carreteras, la distancia a localidades y la pendiente del terreno fueron indicadores importantes para explicar la deforestación en los tres tipos de bosque y los dos periodos analizados. La evaluación de los modelos probabilísticos a través del análisis ROC muestra que los resultados se encuentran muy por arriba de un modelo aleatorio y fueron capaces de identificar las áreas más propensas a los CCUS del siguiente periodo (2000-2011) para las ocho transiciones analizadas.<hr/>We analyzed land use / land cover changes (LUCC) in the basin of the river Coyuquilla in the state of Guerrero, Mexico during the periods 1986-2000 and 2000-2011. Land use / land cover maps for 1986, 2000 and 2011 were elaborated using Landsat and SPOT images and previous cartography from the National Institute of Geography and Statistics (INEGI) and the National Forest Inventory. The analysis of the satellite images was carried out through the method of interdependent interpretation of multidate satellite data in order to assure the consistency of the classification. Maps' accuracy was assessed through the interpretation of a stratified random sample of verification sites. Census information from INEGI, which includes demographic and socioeconomic data, along with environmental data were gathered and integrated in a GIS database. The method of the weights of evidence was applied in order to identify the LUCC drivers and elaborate maps of change probability. These maps were evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Overall map accuracy was 71%, 73% and 75% for 1986, 2000 and 2011 respectively. During the period 1986-2000, a loss of 16% of the forest cover that mainly affected the dry tropical forest with an annual deforestation rate of -3.7% was observed. During the period 2000-2011, a loss of 22% of forest cover was observed and oak forest was the cover with the highest deforestation rate (-5.54%). These results are consistent with previous studies in the region. The increase of induced pasture was the main cause of the loss of forest cover. The elevation, distance to roads, distance to human settlements and the slope were important factors to explain deforestation in the three forest types and the two periods analyzed. The assessment of probabilistic models through the computing of the area under the ROC curve index gives index values between 0.61 and 0.92. These results are well above a random model and show that the models were able to identify the most likely to LUCC areas for the next period (2000-2011) for the eight analyzed transitions. Therefore, the model presents a reasonable performance in identifying the forest areas more likely to be cleared. However, in order to understand the processes of changes and their causes, the statistical approach must be complemented by a study based on a social science approach. <![CDATA[Tendencias recientes en los estudios de Geografía rural. Desarrollos teóricos y líneas de investigación en países de América Latina]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300075&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es En la presente contribución se hace un recorrido por las diversas rutas teóricas y metodológicas que sustentan a la Geografía rural, en sus modalidades actuales. Se hace especial énfasis en los aportes que establecen la geografía francesa y la anglosajona. En los inicios de la disciplina, a principios del siglo XX, destacaba la identificación y la descripción de los paisajes, influenciada por la importancia del discurso regionalista. Posteriormente, los estudios geográficos rurales se desarrollaron bajo la influencia de la Geografía económica, fundamentalmente la descripción de las grandes zonas de especialización agrícola a nivel mundial (zonas de producción de cereales, de agricultura mediterránea, etc.), para posteriormente, a partir de la década de los años ochenta, analizar la profundidad de las transformaciones territoriales que acontecen en el medio rural, producto de los cambios en el paradigma productivo fordista y posfordista, así como las modalidades derivadas de la globalización. Destaca la identificación del territorio como categoría conceptul para estudiar sus procesos y formas de aprehensión, así como los conceptos y las ideas vigentes en la construcción y la gestión territorial. Se destacan algunas tendencias y líneas de investigación prevalecientes en algunos países de América Latina, donde actualmene se analiza la ruralidad no solo desde el discurso geográfico, sino a través de diversas disciplinas sociales, abocadas al estudio de los territorios. Se enfatiza en el estudio de la dinámica urbano-rural, como una de las expresiones actuales de mayor trascendencia y en la que se expresan más vertiginosamente los cambios territoriales.<hr/>In this paper it is made a tour through the various theoretical and methodological routes that support the Rural Geography, in its current forms. The article is part of a wider investigation into the trends and state of the art of rurality between the years 1990 and 2010, with emphasis on rural geography perspective and particularly on the contributions that establish French geography and Anglo- Saxon geography. It highlights how these influences have transcended national geographical schools in some countries of Latin America. At the beginning of the discipline in the early twentieth century, emphasizing the identification and description of landscapes, influenced by the importance of regionalist discourse. Subsequently, rural geographical studies developed under the influence of economic geography, mainly describing large areas of agricultural specialization worldwide (cereal production areas, or Mediterranean agriculture, etc.). Later, from the decade of the eighties, analyze the depth of the territorial changes that occur in rural areas, due to changes in the Fordist and post-Fordist production paradigm, and the arrangements resulting from globalization. Highlight Post-productivist trends, evident since the late eighties and during the nineties, represented by the functional diversification of rural areas. In these, have changed the traditional roles of rural spaces, in terms of food production and land use, with the growing presence of non-agricultural functions, such as residential, industrial, commercial, transport and recreation, gradually displacing agricultural activities, changing the face of traditional agricultural areas. Characterization and function of the field, start to differentiate. Cities grow, expand and modify their links with adjacent rural areas; in rural areas more and more housing developments. In the great world metropolis urbanization advances significantly in the occupation of rural areas, although in some countries, such progress is conducted under certain rules of land use, while others are made of chaotic way. However in both cases, are becoming more confusing the boundaries between city and countryside. The conditions of agricultural and livestock production have changed; the social composition of rural households has become the product of intense national and international migration as well as proliferation of new non-agricultural activities. Electronic communications and computing have entered the field, at different levels and this too has changed. The rural geography as a branch in the study of humanized spaces, analyzes the different ways in which they are spatially embodied such transformations. Precisely rural geography has been commissioned to give a space character to the territorial, economic and social changes that occur in the field, with an even greater than other disciplines such as rural sociology, anthropology or agricultural economics emphasis. Now from the decade of the eighties, rural geography gives particular attention to the residential function and social changes that are prevalent in peri-urban , favoring approaches to the employment and several third sector activities (services and leisure) who develope the new inhabitants. It is recognized that peri-urbanization has crossed the characterizations and typologies actually recognized. From disciplines such as rural sociology and social anthropology is discussed about the location of people in a given area: are they urban or rural? Different positions are presented and there is a need to review the relevance of the dichotomy and the hybrid character, intermediate between town and country. Finally, emphasizing the identification of territory as a conceptual category to study their processes and forms of apprehension, as well as the concepts and current ideas in construction and territorial management. Highlights some prevailing trends and lines of research in some countries of Latin America, where currently rurality is analyzed not only from the geographical discourse, but through various social disciplines devoted to the study of the territories. In this context, although the Rural Geography has contributed concepts and tools that enhance the perception of territorial expressions of economic and social processes relies increasingly greater extent, to linking with other social disciplines. It fulfills with its tasks of spatial analysis as a discipline. <![CDATA[El automóvil y los mapas en la integración del territorio mexicano, 1929-1962]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300091&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Este artículo examina una nueva geografía social abierta por el uso del automóvil y los mapas a través del territorio mexicano por medio de una tríada conceptual que otorga una renovada perspectiva cultural a la geografía mexicana, a saber: el territorio de la circulación, el territorio visual y el territorio de la experiencia. El primero presenta dos variables de análisis: la difusión del automóvil con una perspectiva latinoamericana y los mapas de carreteras del país, entre 1929 y 1962, como promotores de un estilo de viaje y, a la vez, de otra vertiente del nacionalismo mexicano; el segundo examina la representación del paisaje a través de algunas guías de viaje que convirtieron lo lejano y desconocido en familiar y deseable y, el tercero y último, presenta la experiencia de algunos viajeros ante la expansión del horizonte a través del automóvil y el asombro que causaba la variedad de paisajes, en las tres principales carreteras abiertas del país: la del Pacífico, la del norte y la del Occidente. Esta perspectiva sobre la difusión del automóvil y el lugar de los mapas se integraron a los procesos de homogeneización e integración del territorio durante el siglo XX mexicano.<hr/>This article examines a new social geography opened by the use of the automobile and maps in the Mexican territory between 1929 and 1962. In this temporary scenery, the construction of roads during a considerable span of the 20th Century has been identified as part of the modernization plan of the revolutionary governments of Mexico. This infrastructure furnished the opportunity of getting to know the wide variety of landscapes of the country as never before. A set of new traveling experiences was offered to the middle class at the same time that such diversity of Mexican landscapes caused different emotions through the "pleasure" of personally contemplating the rivers, mountains, trees, vegetation, the sea, the hamlets, towns or cities. A central element of this perspective was occupied by the automobile; its presence in Mexico meant a cultural novelty with deep effects and changes in the Mexican society of the 20th Century. The new technological element worked as a new mechanism that started circulating by the roads to observe the landscape. Because of this, we propose the application of three key concepts of space analysis: the circulation territory, the visual territory and the experience territory. Each one of them represents the many sides of the landscape as one study object, and of geography interest, as described below. The territory of circulation came about when the railroads decline started in the twenties and consolidated in the sixties of the past century. That is why in this section we first place a comparative perspective of the motorization levels through the number of inhabitants per automobile in several Latin-American countries having available ordered historical statistics on the matter. Results show a long construction of the automobile culture in this geographic region; construction that incorporated new communication and evolution forms of social groups. This set of elements was later related with the construction of roads and the cartographic production. In the first case, Mexico took important steps to pass from ten thousand kilometers to almost sixty thousand in the study period. This evolution, between 1929 and 1962, was registered, in the second case, in a series of maps showing paved roads and the national scale. The set of maps registered the evolution of the country roads and broadened the conventional or domestic freedom of transit to adventure beyond the Mexican capital and immerse in the landscapes around the country's three main roads. In the following section, the visual territory was examined. This concept leads to inquire about the representation of the landscape in some guides for motorists published in Mexico between the twenties and sixties of the past century. Attention is focused, in this point, in the maps, the photographs and texts in the pages of these consultation materials that, as cultural products, have the capacity of changing what is far away and unknown of the landscape in familiar and desirable among a middle class public that was getting deeper into that territory. In this section, two points are remarkable: first the preference shown towards the Valley of Mexico in the guides selected, making it the first option before the travelers sight, that is, to know the closes landscape thus transforming this region in the "nation's visual emblem". On the other hand, in each studied guide, the car's departure was placed in the central gate of the National Palace, where the National Roads Commission fixed the starting point of all the roads constructed in Mexico. Thus the center was set in the ancient Vice-royal building associating this historical site with the geographical origin of the country. This cultural reference was established as the place of national identity and the automobile as the icon of mobility disseminating modernity through Mexico. In the last section, the territory of experience was presented. Through it, the impressions of some travelers were identified as part of the traveling experience, the expanding horizon and the new visual experiences arising from a variety of landscapes crossed by the automobile, in the mountains, and towns of destination after hours of driving. For this part, traveler's testimonies have been selected that originating in Mexico City, enjoyed and appreciate the landscapes in the three main open roads of the country: the Pacific one, and the North, and West ones. This perspective of granting more attention to the automobile and the maps is integrated to the processes of homogenization and integration of the territory in the Mexican 20th Century. <![CDATA[Valoración escénica de paisaje periurbano con utilidad en planeamiento territorial. Estudio de caso en la Región Metropolitana de Barcelona]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300109&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Los márgenes de ciudades configuran paisajes complejos, de transición entre lo rural, lo natural y lo urbano, con límites difusos y en mutua interdependencia. El Convenio europeo del paisaje concede gran importancia a los paisajes cotidianos, entre los que se encuentran los de carácter periurbano. Existe un número limitado de experiencias de valoración estética en paisajes periurbanos, hecho que sorprende teniendo en cuenta la abundancia e importancia de los mismos. La investigación que presentamos se basa en una metodología, centrada en el uso de sistemas de información geográfica (SIG), apropiada para valorar estéticamente dichas áreas, y con utilidad en planeamiento territorial. Su principal interés radica en ofrecer una doble valoración, según calidad y fragilidad del paisaje, y en su elevada sistematicidad. El procedimiento se aplica en Muntanyes d'Ordal, en la Región Metropolitana de Barcelona (España), un área de fuertes tensiones territoriales y valores paisajísticos contrastados. Los resultados obtenidos son de gran aplicabilidad e indican un predominio de los valores medios, tanto de calidad como de fragilidad del paisaje.<hr/>Landscape's quality plays an important role in economic activities localisation, mainly in extraordinary or reputed sceneries. In degraded, everyday and suburban landscapes, landscape's quality is also deep important because indirectly determines where activities may be located, for example using selected viewsheds to discard impacting activities. European landscape convention gives remarkable importance to everyday landscapes, mentioning them in its Preamble, Article 2 and 6. The aim of this paper is to show a proceeding especially planned to asses landscape quality in degraded and everyday landscapes, without outstanding aesthetic values but important in quality of life because being placed in suburban areas. To this end visual landscape approach is yielded, using gis techniques and validating results in Muntanyes d'Ordal, in Barcelona's metropolitan region (Spain). An indirect landscape assessment procedure is developed, considering landscape from a quality and fragility point of view. Landscape quality refers to intrinsic values; landscape fragility refers to responses to changes. Both, quality and fragility are of interest in urban planning: the former gives information about most interesting areas from a landscape's values point of view and the later from urban planning perspective. Besides that, also physiographic and ecologic landscape values have been also considered. Ground work has provided the most of the information, collecting data at 1:5,000 accuracy. Vector and raster data models have been used, creating final maps of 10m pixels and 1:10,000 accuracy. Microstation v8 (c) Bentley and ArcGis 10 (c) ESRI software has been used. Landscape quality has been assessed giving positives values to land cover, vegetation, relief and terrain structure. Also punctual elements have been considered, according to local inhabitant's perception. In general terms, forested areas, contrasted relief, cliffs and eye-catching colours in rocks have been positively valuated in a 1 to 5 scale range. Viewsheds from positive and negative considered elements have been calculated, giving a +2 punctuation to the positive ones and -1 to the negative ones. Landscape fragility has been assessed considering those variables which increase or decrease visual absorption, such as height vegetation, slope or aspect, in a 1 to 5 scale range. Viewsheds have been calculated from peaks, gazers, urban areas, and roads. Eventually both layers have been combined and new values reclassified. Finally quality and fragility landscape's maps have been synthesised, in order to make results easy to understand and use in urban planning. Values harmonisation has been done considering that low quality values and low fragility values mean high aptitude to receive new urban planning and, inversely, high quality values and high fragility values mean low aptitude to receive new planning. Final results have been classified in five categories legend, from very low to very height. A 5.97% of the studied area has a very high aptitude to receive new urban developments, whereas the most of the studied area (44.71% and 25.08%) have high and medium values. The studied area contains some protected areas, which mean 65.29% of very high or high values to receive new planning. Those areas, because being protected, should be discarded in new planning. On the contrary, outside protected areas, more than 50% of the studied area has high values to receive new planning. That means beside landscape values, those areas are adjacent to already built up areas or in a distance lower to 50m, so new planning is desirable to take place within. Exercises like this one have an important applied value and are a good tool in urban planning, especially in degraded, suburban and everyday landscapes, because prevent from a landscape improvement and helps to a well-being and quality landscapes. <![CDATA[Inestabilidad de laderas e infraestructura vial: análisis de susceptibilidad en la Sierra Nororiental de Puebla, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300122&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es En México y diversas partes del mundo los desastres asociados a la inestabilidad de laderas generan impactos negativos en el ámbito socio-económico y ambiental. Además de las pérdidas de vida, y el daño a la cubierta vegetal, las afectaciones a las viviendas y la infraestructura son frecuentes; en los últimos años, la destrucción y deterioro en la infraestructura vial ha sido de particular importancia. Entre las diferentes áreas del país que de manera recurrente suelen ser afectadas por inestabilidad de laderas, se encuentra la Sierra Norte del estado de Puebla. Pérdidas humanas y económicas directas e indirectas, resultado de la ocurrencia de procesos de remoción en masa (PRM) desencadenados principalmente por lluvias intensas, en comunidades vulnerables expuestas de esta región, han tenido lugar desde hace algunas décadas. El impacto en la infraestructura ha cobrado gran relevancia, especialmente desde 1999, razón por la cual este estudio se centró en el análisis de la susceptibilidad a procesos de remoción de masa en las principales carreteras de la región de la Sierra Nororiental de Puebla. Dicho análisis involucró la elaboración de un inventario de PRM, así como de la cartografía temática empleada como insumo para la aplicación del análisis multicriterio y pesos de evidencia. Se obtuvieron dos mapas de susceptibilidad de la región de interés, y los resultados fueron analizados a través de un índice de recurrencia de PRM. Finalmente, se efectuó el análisis espacial de la susceptibilidad a PRM de varios tramos carreteros de la Sierra Nororiental, con base en el análisis de proximidad y de superposición. El inventario de PRM generado se integró por 166 procesos de remoción en masa y 40 zonas potencialmente inestables. Las áreas de muy alta susceptibilidad corresponden a zonas con un relieve muy accidentado, mientras que las regiones planas coinciden con zonas de muy baja susceptibilidad. La variación de los resultados expresados en los mapas de susceptibilidad elaborados a partir de ambas metodologías implica que la zonificación resultado del análisis multicriterio tiende a producir valores más bajos en la zona urbana, mientras que en el peso de evidencia, se le confieren valores menores a zonas montañosas que pueden caracterizarse como potencialmente inestables debido a su naturaleza geológico-geomorfológica, pero que adolecen de registros o evidencias concretas.<hr/>In Mexico and around the world, disasters associated with slope instability generate negative impacts on the socio-economic and environmental contexts. Besides the loss of life and damage to vegetation cover, the damages to homes and infrastructure are common. In recent years, the destruction and deterioration of road infrastructure has been of particular importance. The Sierra Norte de Puebla is among the different áreas of the country that are recurrently affected by slope instability. Direct and indirect human and economic losses result of the occurrence of mass movement processes (MMP) -mainly triggered by heavy rains- in vulnerable exposed communities in this region, have taken place since some decades. The impact on infrastructure has become important, especially since 1999. Therefore, this study is focused on the analysis of susceptibility to mass movement processes on the main roads of the Northeast region of the Sierra de Puebla. This analysis involved the development of an inventory of MMP as well as of the thematic maps used as input for the implementation of multi-criteria and weights of evidence analysis. Two maps of susceptibility of the region of interest were obtained and the results were analyzed by a recurrence index of MMP. Finally, the spatial analysis of susceptibility to MMP for several road sections of the Sierra Nororiental, based on the analysis of proximity and overlap, was made. The inventory was generated based on two procedures. The first was through direct observation in the field and data collection by using a global positioning system (GPS). The second was through remote sensing using SPOT satellite images and Google Earth. The inventory included 166 landslides and 40 potentially unstable areas. According to the recurrence index of MMP developed in order to analyze the produced maps, results obtained by applying the method of weights of evidence, showed that 72.28% of MMP occurred in the ranges of high and very high susceptibility, 24.1% in areas of medium susceptibility and 3.6% in the low range. The MMP categorized as low range were caused by human factors, and were situated in slope cuts or artificial excavations of small dimensions, which due to map scale and the interval of contour lines were not properly represented. Moreover, according to the multi-criteria analysis, 69.27% of MMP were located in the range of high and very high susceptibility, 23.49% are in areas of medium susceptibility and the remaining 7.22% were concentrated on low and very low areas of susceptibility. MMP that are in the low range are of small size and result from the constructions and cuts for roads, that is to say, to factors or parameters that were not considered directly in this analysis. The high susceptibility áreas correspond to áreas with very rugged terrain, while the fíat regions coincide with áreas of very low susceptibility. The variation of the results expressed in the susceptibility maps produced by applying both methodologies implies that the zoning of multi-criteria analysis tends to produce lower values in urban areas, while the weight of evidence, conferred lower values to mountain areas that can be centeracterized as potentially unstable due to its geological-geomorphological nature, but lacks of records or concrete evidence. This study represents a first step in the analysis of slope instability triggered by rainfall in the road infrastructure in the Sierra Nororiental de Puebla (North Eastern Range of Puebla). It is therefore important that future studies of multidisciplinary nature and especially the contribution of civil engineering perspective consider the interaction between the physical environment and road infrastructure. As such, it will be of great significant to address issues including slope cutting height, angle of slope, drainage works cleaning, type of cross section of the road, functionality of the retention works, type of soil and rock, rock fractures, discontinuities, the level of cutting of vegetation coverage, erosion processes, and rainfall- infiltration dynamics. <![CDATA[Los Atlas de Riesgo municipales en México como instrumentos de ordenamiento territorial]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300146&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Los Atlas de Riesgos municipales constituyen uno de los instrumentos que el gobierno mexicano ha privilegiado en los últimos años, con la finalidad de apoyar el ordenamiento de los asentamientos humanos en México. Este artículo recupera los principales antecedentes conceptuales, metodológicos, institucionales y legales de estos productos cartográficos, y analiza sus alcances y limitaciones reales en cuanto instrumentos de regulación de usos de suelo y gestión de riesgo en el caso mexicano. Para ello, utiliza los conceptos de juridificación, cumplimiento de marcos normativos (enforcement ) y gestión multi-escalar, con el objeto de analizar las condiciones en las que estos atlas surgen como dispositivos jurídicos en el contexto de una descentralización parcial del ordenamiento teritorial y la protección civil, así como la distancia que los separa de los efectos territoriales esperados de ellos. El artículo sustenta las razones para la relativa inoperancia de los atlas en el contexto de los gobiernos municipales; entre estas razones destacan la indefinición en el marco legal sobre su contenido y uso; la falta de claridad sobre las instancias responsables de su implementación, y la carencia de sanciones que conlleva su incumplimiento en la mayoría de las legislaciones estatales.<hr/>Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH), which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry f Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU) from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as 'vulnerability', 'affected systems', 'disturbances') but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices. This legal and institutional review leads to a conceptual framework based on recent contributions of the field of legal geographies and socio-legal studies on disasters. The paper discusses the process of juridification of risk Atlases (that is, how have they become policy instruments), together with a complex set of normative documents, including laws, codes, programs, land use plans and planning acts, among others. The main contributions from theorists of the field of legal geographies of disasters are discussed to understand how Risk Atlases have become important documents for the 'juridical production of the territory'. These documents are part of a normative universe that is embedded in a complex and decentralized scheme of both natural hazards provisions and urban development planning. Many of the agencies involved in these two fields have superimposed functions and scopes, while others that should be closely related because they complement each other's objectives, are in fact separated and with no legal linkages among them. In particular, the current program under which Risk Atlases are produced is nested in the government office in charge of the land use national policy and used by the urban development offices of municipal governments, to prevent human settlements to consolidate in risk-prone areas. Nevertheless, Risk Atlases are defined in several laws as key tools to prevent risk and manage emergencies. That means that they are increasingly used by many other agents involved in the National System of Civil Protection (an arrangement to co-ordinate different stakeholders, including national, provincial and municipal governments, together with federal agencies, private and social sectors) for objectives that fall far beyond land use regulation. However, despite its undeniable importance, there is still a remarkable inoperative character of many of these Atlases. The paper intends to explain the reasons behind this problem by identifying the distance between the normative content of these documents and their conditions of enforcement. The authors review the laws and programs that define the scope and the actual rules of implementation of the Atlas, and discuss why the expected outcomes on risk reduction and land regulation are not possible under the current normative and organizational structure within which Atlas operate. Some of these reasons are the vagueness about what kind of information should an Atlas contain and how this information should be used; the lack of clarity regarding who should implement that in each government level; and finally, the lack of sanctions if the restrictions derived from the risk analysis contained in the Atlases are unfulfilled. The paper concludes that Atlases have emerged as an informative rather than regulatory document, in a context of weak institutional capacities at the municipal level. With that conclusion the authors urge policymakers to review the position of risk Atlases within the National System of Civil Protection, as well as the legal framework of natural hazard provisions and land use planning in order to strengthen them. <![CDATA[Checa-Artasu, M., García Chiang, P. Soto Villagrán y P. Sunyer Martín (coords.; 2014), Paisaje y Territorio. Articulaciones teóricas y empíricas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México, ISBN 978-607-28-0342-8]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300163&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Los Atlas de Riesgos municipales constituyen uno de los instrumentos que el gobierno mexicano ha privilegiado en los últimos años, con la finalidad de apoyar el ordenamiento de los asentamientos humanos en México. Este artículo recupera los principales antecedentes conceptuales, metodológicos, institucionales y legales de estos productos cartográficos, y analiza sus alcances y limitaciones reales en cuanto instrumentos de regulación de usos de suelo y gestión de riesgo en el caso mexicano. Para ello, utiliza los conceptos de juridificación, cumplimiento de marcos normativos (enforcement ) y gestión multi-escalar, con el objeto de analizar las condiciones en las que estos atlas surgen como dispositivos jurídicos en el contexto de una descentralización parcial del ordenamiento teritorial y la protección civil, así como la distancia que los separa de los efectos territoriales esperados de ellos. El artículo sustenta las razones para la relativa inoperancia de los atlas en el contexto de los gobiernos municipales; entre estas razones destacan la indefinición en el marco legal sobre su contenido y uso; la falta de claridad sobre las instancias responsables de su implementación, y la carencia de sanciones que conlleva su incumplimiento en la mayoría de las legislaciones estatales.<hr/>Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH), which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry f Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU) from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as 'vulnerability', 'affected systems', 'disturbances') but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices. This legal and institutional review leads to a conceptual framework based on recent contributions of the field of legal geographies and socio-legal studies on disasters. The paper discusses the process of juridification of risk Atlases (that is, how have they become policy instruments), together with a complex set of normative documents, including laws, codes, programs, land use plans and planning acts, among others. The main contributions from theorists of the field of legal geographies of disasters are discussed to understand how Risk Atlases have become important documents for the 'juridical production of the territory'. These documents are part of a normative universe that is embedded in a complex and decentralized scheme of both natural hazards provisions and urban development planning. Many of the agencies involved in these two fields have superimposed functions and scopes, while others that should be closely related because they complement each other's objectives, are in fact separated and with no legal linkages among them. In particular, the current program under which Risk Atlases are produced is nested in the government office in charge of the land use national policy and used by the urban development offices of municipal governments, to prevent human settlements to consolidate in risk-prone areas. Nevertheless, Risk Atlases are defined in several laws as key tools to prevent risk and manage emergencies. That means that they are increasingly used by many other agents involved in the National System of Civil Protection (an arrangement to co-ordinate different stakeholders, including national, provincial and municipal governments, together with federal agencies, private and social sectors) for objectives that fall far beyond land use regulation. However, despite its undeniable importance, there is still a remarkable inoperative character of many of these Atlases. The paper intends to explain the reasons behind this problem by identifying the distance between the normative content of these documents and their conditions of enforcement. The authors review the laws and programs that define the scope and the actual rules of implementation of the Atlas, and discuss why the expected outcomes on risk reduction and land regulation are not possible under the current normative and organizational structure within which Atlas operate. Some of these reasons are the vagueness about what kind of information should an Atlas contain and how this information should be used; the lack of clarity regarding who should implement that in each government level; and finally, the lack of sanctions if the restrictions derived from the risk analysis contained in the Atlases are unfulfilled. The paper concludes that Atlases have emerged as an informative rather than regulatory document, in a context of weak institutional capacities at the municipal level. With that conclusion the authors urge policymakers to review the position of risk Atlases within the National System of Civil Protection, as well as the legal framework of natural hazard provisions and land use planning in order to strengthen them. <![CDATA[Harvey, D. (2014), Seventeen Contradictions and the End of Capitalism, Oxford University Press, New York, 338 p., ISBN 978-0-19-936026-0 (hardcover)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300165&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Los Atlas de Riesgos municipales constituyen uno de los instrumentos que el gobierno mexicano ha privilegiado en los últimos años, con la finalidad de apoyar el ordenamiento de los asentamientos humanos en México. Este artículo recupera los principales antecedentes conceptuales, metodológicos, institucionales y legales de estos productos cartográficos, y analiza sus alcances y limitaciones reales en cuanto instrumentos de regulación de usos de suelo y gestión de riesgo en el caso mexicano. Para ello, utiliza los conceptos de juridificación, cumplimiento de marcos normativos (enforcement ) y gestión multi-escalar, con el objeto de analizar las condiciones en las que estos atlas surgen como dispositivos jurídicos en el contexto de una descentralización parcial del ordenamiento teritorial y la protección civil, así como la distancia que los separa de los efectos territoriales esperados de ellos. El artículo sustenta las razones para la relativa inoperancia de los atlas en el contexto de los gobiernos municipales; entre estas razones destacan la indefinición en el marco legal sobre su contenido y uso; la falta de claridad sobre las instancias responsables de su implementación, y la carencia de sanciones que conlleva su incumplimiento en la mayoría de las legislaciones estatales.<hr/>Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH), which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry f Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU) from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as 'vulnerability', 'affected systems', 'disturbances') but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices. This legal and institutional review leads to a conceptual framework based on recent contributions of the field of legal geographies and socio-legal studies on disasters. The paper discusses the process of juridification of risk Atlases (that is, how have they become policy instruments), together with a complex set of normative documents, including laws, codes, programs, land use plans and planning acts, among others. The main contributions from theorists of the field of legal geographies of disasters are discussed to understand how Risk Atlases have become important documents for the 'juridical production of the territory'. These documents are part of a normative universe that is embedded in a complex and decentralized scheme of both natural hazards provisions and urban development planning. Many of the agencies involved in these two fields have superimposed functions and scopes, while others that should be closely related because they complement each other's objectives, are in fact separated and with no legal linkages among them. In particular, the current program under which Risk Atlases are produced is nested in the government office in charge of the land use national policy and used by the urban development offices of municipal governments, to prevent human settlements to consolidate in risk-prone areas. Nevertheless, Risk Atlases are defined in several laws as key tools to prevent risk and manage emergencies. That means that they are increasingly used by many other agents involved in the National System of Civil Protection (an arrangement to co-ordinate different stakeholders, including national, provincial and municipal governments, together with federal agencies, private and social sectors) for objectives that fall far beyond land use regulation. However, despite its undeniable importance, there is still a remarkable inoperative character of many of these Atlases. The paper intends to explain the reasons behind this problem by identifying the distance between the normative content of these documents and their conditions of enforcement. The authors review the laws and programs that define the scope and the actual rules of implementation of the Atlas, and discuss why the expected outcomes on risk reduction and land regulation are not possible under the current normative and organizational structure within which Atlas operate. Some of these reasons are the vagueness about what kind of information should an Atlas contain and how this information should be used; the lack of clarity regarding who should implement that in each government level; and finally, the lack of sanctions if the restrictions derived from the risk analysis contained in the Atlases are unfulfilled. The paper concludes that Atlases have emerged as an informative rather than regulatory document, in a context of weak institutional capacities at the municipal level. With that conclusion the authors urge policymakers to review the position of risk Atlases within the National System of Civil Protection, as well as the legal framework of natural hazard provisions and land use planning in order to strengthen them. <![CDATA[8.a Conferencia Internacional sobre Geografías de la Población en Brisbane, Australia]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300167&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Los Atlas de Riesgos municipales constituyen uno de los instrumentos que el gobierno mexicano ha privilegiado en los últimos años, con la finalidad de apoyar el ordenamiento de los asentamientos humanos en México. Este artículo recupera los principales antecedentes conceptuales, metodológicos, institucionales y legales de estos productos cartográficos, y analiza sus alcances y limitaciones reales en cuanto instrumentos de regulación de usos de suelo y gestión de riesgo en el caso mexicano. Para ello, utiliza los conceptos de juridificación, cumplimiento de marcos normativos (enforcement ) y gestión multi-escalar, con el objeto de analizar las condiciones en las que estos atlas surgen como dispositivos jurídicos en el contexto de una descentralización parcial del ordenamiento teritorial y la protección civil, así como la distancia que los separa de los efectos territoriales esperados de ellos. El artículo sustenta las razones para la relativa inoperancia de los atlas en el contexto de los gobiernos municipales; entre estas razones destacan la indefinición en el marco legal sobre su contenido y uso; la falta de claridad sobre las instancias responsables de su implementación, y la carencia de sanciones que conlleva su incumplimiento en la mayoría de las legislaciones estatales.<hr/>Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH), which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry f Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU) from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as 'vulnerability', 'affected systems', 'disturbances') but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices. This legal and institutional review leads to a conceptual framework based on recent contributions of the field of legal geographies and socio-legal studies on disasters. The paper discusses the process of juridification of risk Atlases (that is, how have they become policy instruments), together with a complex set of normative documents, including laws, codes, programs, land use plans and planning acts, among others. The main contributions from theorists of the field of legal geographies of disasters are discussed to understand how Risk Atlases have become important documents for the 'juridical production of the territory'. These documents are part of a normative universe that is embedded in a complex and decentralized scheme of both natural hazards provisions and urban development planning. Many of the agencies involved in these two fields have superimposed functions and scopes, while others that should be closely related because they complement each other's objectives, are in fact separated and with no legal linkages among them. In particular, the current program under which Risk Atlases are produced is nested in the government office in charge of the land use national policy and used by the urban development offices of municipal governments, to prevent human settlements to consolidate in risk-prone areas. Nevertheless, Risk Atlases are defined in several laws as key tools to prevent risk and manage emergencies. That means that they are increasingly used by many other agents involved in the National System of Civil Protection (an arrangement to co-ordinate different stakeholders, including national, provincial and municipal governments, together with federal agencies, private and social sectors) for objectives that fall far beyond land use regulation. However, despite its undeniable importance, there is still a remarkable inoperative character of many of these Atlases. The paper intends to explain the reasons behind this problem by identifying the distance between the normative content of these documents and their conditions of enforcement. The authors review the laws and programs that define the scope and the actual rules of implementation of the Atlas, and discuss why the expected outcomes on risk reduction and land regulation are not possible under the current normative and organizational structure within which Atlas operate. Some of these reasons are the vagueness about what kind of information should an Atlas contain and how this information should be used; the lack of clarity regarding who should implement that in each government level; and finally, the lack of sanctions if the restrictions derived from the risk analysis contained in the Atlases are unfulfilled. The paper concludes that Atlases have emerged as an informative rather than regulatory document, in a context of weak institutional capacities at the municipal level. With that conclusion the authors urge policymakers to review the position of risk Atlases within the National System of Civil Protection, as well as the legal framework of natural hazard provisions and land use planning in order to strengthen them. <![CDATA[Las geografías de Antonio Carlos Robert Moraes: de la <strong><em>Pequena História Crítica</em></strong> al pensamiento de Milton Santos]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000300169&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Los Atlas de Riesgos municipales constituyen uno de los instrumentos que el gobierno mexicano ha privilegiado en los últimos años, con la finalidad de apoyar el ordenamiento de los asentamientos humanos en México. Este artículo recupera los principales antecedentes conceptuales, metodológicos, institucionales y legales de estos productos cartográficos, y analiza sus alcances y limitaciones reales en cuanto instrumentos de regulación de usos de suelo y gestión de riesgo en el caso mexicano. Para ello, utiliza los conceptos de juridificación, cumplimiento de marcos normativos (enforcement ) y gestión multi-escalar, con el objeto de analizar las condiciones en las que estos atlas surgen como dispositivos jurídicos en el contexto de una descentralización parcial del ordenamiento teritorial y la protección civil, así como la distancia que los separa de los efectos territoriales esperados de ellos. El artículo sustenta las razones para la relativa inoperancia de los atlas en el contexto de los gobiernos municipales; entre estas razones destacan la indefinición en el marco legal sobre su contenido y uso; la falta de claridad sobre las instancias responsables de su implementación, y la carencia de sanciones que conlleva su incumplimiento en la mayoría de las legislaciones estatales.<hr/>Municipal Risk Atlases are one of the policy instruments that Mexican government has prioritized in the last few years in order to consolidate the territorial regulation of human settlements in the country. This paper reviews the legal, institutional conceptual and methodological developments of these documents and analyzes its current scope and limitations within the Program of Risk Prevention in Human Settlements (PRAH), which had been designed and implemented by the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) between 2010 and 2012, and by the Ministry f Urban, Territorial and Agrarian Development (SEDATU) from 2013. The objective of the paper is to understand the conditions under which the Municipal Risk Atlases have been produced to regulate human settlements in risk-prone areas, as one of many juridical instruments that operate in the fields of land use planning and natural hazards provisions. In the first place, we review different approaches that have been used by different agents within the federal government to produce cartographic information to identify and reduce disaster risk. That includes the different concepts and methodologies used to identify different risk components (such as 'vulnerability', 'affected systems', 'disturbances') but also under which institutional context each of them emerge, how they relate to each other and how are they integrated with other policy devices. This legal and institutional review leads to a conceptual framework based on recent contributions of the field of legal geographies and socio-legal studies on disasters. The paper discusses the process of juridification of risk Atlases (that is, how have they become policy instruments), together with a complex set of normative documents, including laws, codes, programs, land use plans and planning acts, among others. The main contributions from theorists of the field of legal geographies of disasters are discussed to understand how Risk Atlases have become important documents for the 'juridical production of the territory'. These documents are part of a normative universe that is embedded in a complex and decentralized scheme of both natural hazards provisions and urban development planning. Many of the agencies involved in these two fields have superimposed functions and scopes, while others that should be closely related because they complement each other's objectives, are in fact separated and with no legal linkages among them. In particular, the current program under which Risk Atlases are produced is nested in the government office in charge of the land use national policy and used by the urban development offices of municipal governments, to prevent human settlements to consolidate in risk-prone areas. Nevertheless, Risk Atlases are defined in several laws as key tools to prevent risk and manage emergencies. That means that they are increasingly used by many other agents involved in the National System of Civil Protection (an arrangement to co-ordinate different stakeholders, including national, provincial and municipal governments, together with federal agencies, private and social sectors) for objectives that fall far beyond land use regulation. However, despite its undeniable importance, there is still a remarkable inoperative character of many of these Atlases. The paper intends to explain the reasons behind this problem by identifying the distance between the normative content of these documents and their conditions of enforcement. The authors review the laws and programs that define the scope and the actual rules of implementation of the Atlas, and discuss why the expected outcomes on risk reduction and land regulation are not possible under the current normative and organizational structure within which Atlas operate. Some of these reasons are the vagueness about what kind of information should an Atlas contain and how this information should be used; the lack of clarity regarding who should implement that in each government level; and finally, the lack of sanctions if the restrictions derived from the risk analysis contained in the Atlases are unfulfilled. The paper concludes that Atlases have emerged as an informative rather than regulatory document, in a context of weak institutional capacities at the municipal level. With that conclusion the authors urge policymakers to review the position of risk Atlases within the National System of Civil Protection, as well as the legal framework of natural hazard provisions and land use planning in order to strengthen them.