Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Investigaciones geográficas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=0188-461120150001&lang=es vol. num. 86 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[<b>Editorial</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[<b>Red dendrocronológica del pino de altura (<i>Pinus hartwegii</i> Lindl.) para estudios dendroclimáticos en el noreste y centro de México</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100002&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El bosque de Pinus hartwegii constituye el límite superior arbóreo en las montañas de México. En este estudio se desarrolló una red de cronologías de esta especie, localizadas en volcanes del Eje Neovolcánico Transversal, en el centro del país, y picos elevados de la Sierra Madre Oriental, en el noreste. El Análisis de Componentes Principales integró las cronologías en dos grupos, uno para el centro y otro para el noreste, con los que se desarrollaron dos cronologías regionales de 320 años (1690-2009) y 590 años (1420- 2009), respectivamente. El fenómeno de El Niño Oscilación del Sur (ENSO) en su fase cálida (El Niño) y fría (La Niña), mostró un impacto significativo en el comportamiento de la variabilidad hidroclimática descrita por ambas series. La Niña produjo condiciones climáticas contrastantes, es decir, secas en el noreste y húmedas en el centro, mientras que la fase de El Niño originó sequías en ambas regiones, pero solo durante eventos intensos de ENSO.<hr/>Pinus hartwegii is a high elevation species forming the upper treeline in Mexico- from volcanoes of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt in central Mexico and from high elevation peaks of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico. Pure stands of hartwegii pine have been severely logged in the past affecting the proper functioning of the ecosystem, impacting water yield, biodiversity, and other ecosystem services in detriment of the wellbeing of dense human settlements in the Valley of Mexico. In addition to land-use changes, climate warming may threat this ecosystem by altering their health, favoring the recruitment over the treeline where is not adapted, and affecting its dynamics, growth rates, and ecological relationships with associated species. Given the dendrochronological potential of hartwegii pine to produce centuries-long time series useful to analyze high and low frequency climate variability, and influence of atmospheric circulatory patterns, the objective of this study was to develop a network of treering chronologies for central and northeastern Mexico, analyze its potential for dendroclimatic reconstructions and to determine the potential impact and teleconnections of atmospheric circulatory patterns. Nine ring-width series of hartwegii pine were developed for the upper conifer forest of some of the main volcanic peaks in the Valley of Mexico and two more series were produced from trees located at the highest peaks in the Sierra Madre Oriental. A Principal Component Analysis of the chronologies defined two eigenvectors with the highest climate variability, the first component integrated several chronologies from central Mexico, e.g., Nevado de Colima, Pico de Orizaba, Iztaccihuatl, and la Malinche, and the second component from northeastern Mexico included Cerro Potosí, N.L. and Cerro La Viga, Coahuila. The chronologies with a common climate response were integrated into representative regional ring-width series, one of them was the chronology for the Transmexican Volcanic Belt with 320 years length (1690- 2009), whereas the one for the northeastern region covered the last 590 years (1420-2009). The regional chronology for central Mexico indicated below normal growth (<1.0) as related to droughts for the periods 1698-1702, 1716- 1720, 1746-1760, 1806-1813, 1841-1859, 1890-1894, 1935-1940, 1970-1979, and 2000-2004. Similarly, below normal growth for the northeastern ring-width series took place in periods 1450-1460, 1508-1538, 1565-1576, 1661- 1673, 1696-1705, 1757-1765, 1784-1790, 1804-1808, 1844-1849, 1866-1894, 1915-1933, and 1998-2003. Wet episodes (&gt;1.0) were common in both representative series for the periods 1726 to 1728, 1753 to 1755, 1791 to 1797, 1831 to 1837, 1895 to 1914, 1923 to 1926, 1940 to 1941, 1957 to 1958, 1965 to 1969, 1985 to 1987, and 2001 to 2005. Verification of some of the detected droughts was done by comparisons with historical records of grain yields, colonial rogation ceremony records, dendroclimatic reconstructions, instrumental climate data, and climatic indices (Palmer Drought Severity Index, Southern Oscillation Index, Tropical Rainfall Index). Contrasting the regional ring-width indices for the common period (1690-2009) did not show a significant association (r= 0.087, p<0.05), however, both regional dendrochronological series responded to dry and wet episodes for particular years and showed opposite conditions (dipole) for some other years (i.e., wet in the center, dry in the north, and vice versa). This finding indicates that the chronologies responded mostly to local or regional climatic conditions but in certain periods may have been impacted by circulatory patterns affecting larger areas in northern and central Mexico. ENSO is the most important phenomena determining climatic differences between regions. In this study, the Niña conditions (cold phase) was characterized by producing dry conditions in the north and wet conditions in central Mexico (periods 1869 to 1874, 1886 to 1887, 1915 to 1917, 1955 to 1956, 1970 to 1975, and 1988 to 1999); however, other Niña events produced droughts in both regions as in years 1892, 1893, 1922, 1942, and 1998; but others did not have any significant impact such, i.e., 1903, 1908-1910, 1924, 1949, 1954, 1964, and 2007. On the other hand, the El Niño (warm phase) produced dry conditions in both regions, but only during intense ENSO events, that is 1880, 1888, 1899, 1905, 1913, 1918, 1929-1930, 1940, 1963, 1970, 1972, 1976, 1983, 1991, and 1997. A comparison between the ring-with indices of the regional chronology representative of the Transmexican Volcanic Belt and a seasonal (January- September) mean precipitation for the region indicated a significant association (r= 0.8, p<0.000) between both variables. It was not found a significant association with temperature. Even though temperature at high elevations may limit physiological processes for the species, precipitation seems to be the most limiting factor for growth. The wide distribution range of hartwegii pine from Mexico to Guatemala provides an excellent opportunity to expand the current network of treeline chronologies to better understand climate variability and impacts of climate change. <![CDATA[<b>Análisis espectral del Lago de Guadalupe, mediante imágenes de satélite y datos <i>in situ</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100003&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El Lago de Guadalupe es un embalse localizado en los alrededores de la Ciudad de México, y recibe un volumen considerable de aguas residuales. En este trabajo se presenta un análisis espectral del Lago de Guadalupe utilizando imágenes SPOT y datos colectados in situ. Las mediciones fueron realizadas en los meses de febrero y septiembre de 2006. Las variables medidas incluyen temperatura, pH, clorofila a, transparencia Secchi y datos satelitales, cuasisimultáneos, obtenidos de imágenes SPOT. Este cuerpo de agua es eutrófico, con valores básicos de pH (6.8-11.3) y altas concentraciones de clorofila-a (6.9-112.4 µg l-¹) y valores bajos de transparencia Secchi. Térmicamente, el lago es cálido monomíctico. Los resultados indican un alto grado de eutrofización, debida principalmente a la presencia de fitoplancton, vegetación sumergida y flotante. La distribución de la vegetación es cuasi-homogénea en el embalse a excepción de un punto de muestreo.<hr/>Lake of Guadalupe is a reservoir located in the neighborhood of Mexico City, and it is one of the few relicts still remaining in the basin of Mexico. This reservoir receives an important volume of waste waters from its surroundings which include urban, forested, recreational and agricultural sites. In this work we present a spectral analysis of this lake utilizing SPOT imagery and in situ data and the its Trophic State Index (TSI). Measurements were carried out in February and September of 2006. Measured variables include temperature, pH, chlorophyll a, Secchi transparency and quasi-simultaneous satellite data from SPOT images. Variables were measured at seven sampling sites, strategically located along the lake. This water body has eutrophic characteristics, it has basic pH values (6.8-11.3), high chlorophyll a concentrations (6.9-112.4 µg l-1) and low values of Secchi transparency. Thermally, the lake is warm monomictic. Results indicate a high degree of eutrophization of the Lake of Guadalupe, due, mainly, to the presence of phytoplankton and submerged and floating vegetation. The presence of aquatic vegetation such as hyacinth and duckweed is apparent at the edge of the lake. In February, the concentration of Chlorophyll a, expressed as biomass, was homogenous in the reservoir with a mean of 9.56 ± 4.26 mg m-3. .The mean value for Secchi transparency was 3.39 (± 1.13) m, which corresponds to an Extinction Coefficient K = 0.50 m-1 associated to turbid waters. The pH average of 10.40 indicates alkaline conditions. The TSI, estimated from Secchi transparency was 43.50 (±6.9) indicative of meso-trophic waters, whilst the TSI, estimated for chlorophyll a was 52.16 (± 3.35) corresponds to eutrophic waters characterized by the presence of microphytes. In September the concentration of chlorophyll a had a wide range of values with a mean of 72.90 (± 28.46) mg m-3, which clearly indicates hyper-eutrophic waters. Secchi Transparency La averaged 60.29 (± 0.22) cm, with an Extinction Coefficient K = 2.82 m-1. The TSI for this variable was 68.13 (± 5.32) indicative of hyper-eutrophized waters and suggesting anoxic hypolimnia. the TSI estimated from the concentration of chlorophyll a was 71.86 (± 4.62) which is a referent of hyper-eutrophized waters as well. Surface temperature of the reservoir changed from 18.1 in February to 23 in September, pH varied from an alkaline condition >9 in February to a slightly acid pH of 6.8 in September. Chlorophyll a concentration confirm the eutrophication of the dam. Values higher than 5 µgl-1 indicate eutrophic conditions, while those higher than 40 µgl-1 indicate a high hypertrophic environment. In this work, chlorophyll values varied from 6.9 µgl-1 to an a hyper-trophic value of 112.4 µgl-1. Water coloration allowed for the selection of an appropriate spectral SPOT band. The high amount of phytoplankton in the reservoir is useful for a better satellite image interpretation. The use of remote sensed imagery helps for a better monitoring of water quality along with a suitable field work. <![CDATA[<b>Zonificación edafoclimática para el cultivo de <i>Jatropha curcas</i> L., en Tabasco, México</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100004&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es El agotamiento de las reservas petrolíferas y la creciente demanda energética mundial, ponen en evidencia la necesidad de ampliar la oferta de aceites para la producción de biodiesel. El objetivo principal de este estudio, fue determinar las zonas aptas con diferentes aptitudes agroecológicas, para establecer el cultivo de Jatropha curcas en el estado de Tabasco. Para ello se definieron cuatro tipos de aptitud: óptima, adecuada, marginal por déficit térmico e hídrico, y marginal por exceso térmico e hídrico. Para el recurso suelo se consideró la fertilidad, profundidad, textura y pH, y se utilizó la clase de aptitud óptima. La delimitación de estas zonas se generó mediante la implementación de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG), el cual facilitó la manipulación y sobreposición de capas de información temática de clima y suelo. El análisis promedio anual de temperatura demostró que todo el estado de Tabasco presenta aptitud óptima y con el de precipitación se obtuvo una superficie de 2 229 631 ha con aptitud óptima. En lo referente al recurso suelo se detectaron 37 subunidades de suelo con aptitud óptima, sumando una superficie de 945 462 ha. Al realizar el álgebra de mapas entre las aptitudes óptimas climáticas (temperatura, precipitación y periodo de crecimiento) y edafológicas, se obtuvieron 833 181 ha con aptitud agroecológica óptima, por lo que en el estado de Tabasco es factible cultivar esta oleaginosa para producir biocombustibles.<hr/>The exponential growth of energy demand worldwide, the depletion of oil reserves and the severe pollutants problems caused by industry that favors greenhouse effect, evidence the need to increase the supply of oils for biodiesel production. This sets a new overview for studying non-edible oilseeds species. An alternative is barbados nut or piñon (Jatropha curcas) crop, perennial bush that is native from Mexico and Central America, grows in most of tropical countries, and it is considered like one of the non-conventional oilseed crops with great expectations for obtaining biodiesel. The barbados nut (Jatropha curcas) seeds have an outstanding characteristic: their high oil content allows converting it to liquid biofuel, and also the shell can be transformed into biogas and biofertilizers. Jatropha curcas is a green option to reforest degraded soils and to control erosion, as well as an option to diversify agricultural systems (crop rotation). On the other hand, in several scientific studies it is reported a wide variation in yields, due lack of study of plant's genetics, the agronomic handling, as well to the misunderstanding that exists in some countries in the field of zones with best agroecological ability to set the crop. The agroecological zoning (ZAE) refers to a division of land surface and weather into smaller units, that have similar characteristics related to its ability, potential yield and environmental impact. The aim of this paper is to define the zones with different agroecological abilities to set the Jatropha curcas crop, in the state of Tabasco. In order to accomplish this, four types of abilities were defined: optimal, proper, marginal by thermal or water deficit, and marginal by thermal or water excess. The agroecological zoning (ZAE) proposed in this paper defines zones based on combinations of soil, physiography, weather characteristics of temperature, rainfall and growth rate. An agroclimatic zoning is a zone with characteristics related to weather and crop systems, for our study the database of ERIC III (Extractor Rápido de Información Climatológica) was used, reporting for Tabasco a total of 93 meteorological stations. Nevertheless, only 35 stations were selected, since the other had inconsistencies in their information. From those 35 stations, a weather database was created, considering the information of historical series in a daily basis, like minimum and maximum temperatures, rainfall and evaporation (1950 - 2003 period). The edaphoclimatic zoning consisted in assessing the soil resource based in the units and subdivisions of soil from FAO/UNESCO system. In order to fulfill the zoning, cartographic data of soils subunits was consolidated, including texture, slope, soil depth, and its fertility, whose edaphological properties were compared to FAO's Jatropha curcas crop requirements and optimal level was assigned. The tool used for cartography elaboration was ArcMap GIS Software, which consists of computer mapping system that relates locations with agroclimatic information equal to Jatropha curcas crop requirements, which were defined like areas with ability, and according to this maps were prepared at a scale of 1:250 000 of every climatic element. The interpolation for the calculation of isolines was made by Kriging method, embedded within ArcMap software, which ease the handling and superposition of theme information layers of weather and soil. The yearly average analysis of temperature corroborated that whole Tabasco state has optimal ability and the rainfall analysis showed a surface of 2 229 631 ha with optimal ability. About soil resource there were detected 37 subunits of soil with optimal ability, adding a surface of 945 462 ha. After analyzing the maps between optimal characteristic abilities (temperature, rainfall and growth rate) and edaphological, there were detected 833 181 ha with optmial agroecological ability, therefore in the state of Tabasco is feasible the crop of this oilseed to produce biofuels. <![CDATA[<b>Un acercamiento histórico a las condiciones "originales" de funcionamiento del sistema hídrico subterráneo y su respuesta superficial en la microcuenca de la ciudad de Puebla</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es En México, y en Puebla particularmente, ha sido muy común que cuando se han realizado planes-acciones en torno a la gestión del agua o intervenciones gubernamentales para el "ordenamiento territorial", se hayan hecho sin el conocimiento adecuado de los ecosistemas y espacios-entornos naturales afectados. Esto ha sido más palpable cuando se ha tratado de espacios asociados con el funcionamiento del sistema hídrico y particularmente con los flujos de agua subterránea. Por ello es necesario avanzar hacia nuevas formas de gestión del agua y del territorio, para eso se propone como objetivo de este trabajo la construcción de un marco histórico-hídrico de referencia, que permita una mayor comprensión del funcionamiento y evolución del sistema hídrico (concebido como la interacción entre agua subterránea y superficial) y especialmente del reconocimiento de sus espacios-soporte en el territorio. Este marco histórico fue entendido y construido como una plataforma de información estructurada a partir de la teoría de Sistemas de Flujos de Agua Subterránea, con lo cual se logró una aproximación al conocimiento de las condiciones "originales" de funcionamiento del sistema hídrico subterráneo y sus manifestaciones ambientales superficiales en la microcuenca del río San Francisco, territorio en donde se estableció la Puebla Colonial. El objeto fue contar con la mayor cantidad de antecedentes históricos posibles por lo que el estudio abarcó, en general, de los siglos XVI a principios del XX.<hr/>In Mexico, specifically in Puebla, it has been very common that when action-plans about the management of the water or governmental interventions for the "territorial classification" are realized, they are done without the suitable knowledge of the ecosystems and natural affected spaces - environments. This has been more evident when it is about spaces associated with the functioning of the water system and particularly with the flows of groundwater. Due to the previously established it is necessary to lead towards new forms of water and territory management; for this it is proposed as aim of this work the construction of an historical-water frame of reference that allows a major comprehension of the functionality and evolution of the water system (conceived as the interaction between underground and superficial water) and specially of the recognition of his spaces-supports in the territory. This historical frame was understood and constructed as a platform of structured information from the system theory of Flows of Groundwater, whereby an approximation was made to the knowledge of the "original" conditions of functioning of the groundwater system and his environmental superficial manifestations in the microbasin of the San Francisco river, territory where Colonial Puebla was established. In order to possess the major quantity of historical precedents, the study included in general from the XVIth to the beginning of XXth century. <![CDATA[<b>Indicadores socioambientales aplicados en la gestión de ambientes costeros</b>: <b>Caso de estudio Santa Catarina, Brasil</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100006&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es La región costera del estado de Santa Catarina en Brasil, que comprende los promontorios costeros de Penha, Itajaí y Balneário Camboriú, está entre las zonas más afectadas por el proceso de urbanización y, consecuentemente, sufre presión sobre sus recursos naturales provocando destrucción o degradación. Se constató que las principales fuentes de presión son el crecimiento poblacional y el turismo, que acaban generando una serie de efectos al medio ambiente natural. Es posible observar que los promontorios de forma general en su flora se encuentran conservados. La calidad del agua de baño se encuentra óptima para el Municipio de Penha, no obstante, Itajaí posee tendencias de deterioro, como también la desembocadura de la laguna de Taquaras en Balneário Camboriú con calidad impropia. Mediante el análisis ponderado de los datos se constató que cuando se observa la combinación de los niveles de presión con la calidad del agua y el nivel de acceso a los promontorios, es posible determinar que los promontorios de Balneário Camboriú poseen las mayores amenazas con un nivel de presión (NP) muy alto; calidad del agua impropia; y un nivel de acceso (NA) alto, causando una enorme presión sobre los recursos naturales de sus promontorios.<hr/>The coastal region of the State of Santa Catarina in Brazil which includes the coastal promontories of Penha, Balneário Camboriú and Itajaí, is among the areas most affected by urbanization in that area, and consequently suffers pressure on natural resources causing destruction or degradation. The purpose of this study was to identify and analyze the main vectors of pressure on coastal promontories of Penha (São Roque and Monge), Itajaí (Farol de Cabeçudas) and Balneario Camboriú (Taquaras and Taquarinhas). This analysis was based on social and environmental indicators, which tend to facilitate the communicability of complex phenomena and to give subsidy to public managers and civilians, since that simplify complex concepts. For this analysis it was performed a fieldwork in the studies areas, bibliographic and documentary research applicant to the impacts and activities in these areas, as well as research based on data relating to tourism, water quality and demographic development of the municipalities. To evaluate the quality of bathing of beaches in the vicinity of areas of study, it was used the data of the monitoring carried out periodically by the environmental agency of the State of Santa Catarina The diagnosis about the demographic characteristics was developed through research of the evolution of population density of municipalities based on the 1991, 2000 and 2010 census, and population counts in 1996 and. For projections of the evolution of population, for the year 2050 in the municipalities under study, it was used the methodology used by the institute IBGE (governmental institute of statistics). The data on tourism were provided by SANTUR (government institute of tourism), with data for the years 2005-2009 of the amount of tourists on these areas. The analysis was also correlated with the number of beds of occasional use and vacant, to estimate the number of second homes or the number of tourist beds. After the compilation of data and indicators, it was constructed an index of Level of Pressure (LP) composed of three indicators: demographic density, Population Growth and Tourism. The higher the density, population growth and the expressiveness of tourism, the higher the level of pressure, thus establishing a relationship of proportionality between of the Level of Pressure, with the following classes: very high, high, medium, low, very low. This level was combined with the water bathing index (classified as proper or improper) and the Access Level to areas with the purpose of verify which areas with the greatest threats. The access level was classified in three levels: low, medium and high. The higher the rating, the better the local road infrastructure and consequent ease to access it. It was found that the major sources of pressure are population growth and tourism, which end up generating a series of effects to the natural environment. It is possible to observe that the promontories, in generally, has their flora preserved. The bathing water quality is proper for the municipality of Penha, however, in Itajaí there are deteriorating trends, as well as in the outfall of the lagoon of Taquaras in Balneario Camboriu with improper quality, due to sewage releases. Upon analysis of the data, it was found that the combination of the pressure levels with water quality and level of access to the promontories pointed that the promontory of Balneário Camboriu have the greatest threats, with a level of pressure (LP) very high; besides the improper water quality, and access level (AL) high, causing great pressure on the natural resources do promontory. In conclusion, it has been verified the need to expand environmental studies and carry out actions for environmental protection and regulation of land use in these areas of high environmental interest. As regards the use of indicators, these allow to establish relationships and understanding of compact and simplified way of how complex and synergistic phenomena, such as tourism and population growth, interfere with the environmental integrity manifested in these areas and/or municipalities. This interaction approaches the community to monitoring the effectiveness of public policies, as well as supports public managers as guides on planning and to establish goal. <![CDATA[<b>Percepción local de los servicios ecológicos y de bienestar de la selva de la zona maya en Quintana Roo, México</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Este estudio evalúa la percepción local sobre los servicios ecológicos y de bienestar de la selva en comunidades de la zona maya del centro de Quintana Roo. Se trabajó con seis unidades de paisaje, las cuales fueron delimitadas con la participación de habitantes de las comunidades y con una revisión de literatura. Para identificar los servicios que perciben las comunidades de la selva, se utilizaron entrevistas abiertas y semiestructuradas, observación participante, entrevistas a profundidad y talleres comunitarios. Los resultados muestran que los entrevistados identificaron servicios de provisión, de regulación y mantenimiento y culturales. En particular, percibieron más servicios ecológicos en las unidades del "monte alto" y el "acahual de 20 años o más", mientras que la "sabana" fue identificada como la que menos servicios les proporciona. Además, a partir de la teoría de los estudios de desarrollo, el estudio identifica las tres dimensiones del concepto de "bienestar humano": la material, la relacional y la subjetiva, y logra presentar la relación de éstas con los servicios ecológicos percibidos por las comunidades estudiadas. Los resultados muestran una clara interacción sociedad maya-naturaleza y son útiles para orientar la toma de decisiones en el manejo de los recursos naturales, tanto a nivel comunitario como gubernamental.<hr/>This study assesses the Maya communities' local perception of the ecological services and well-being obtained from the rainforest of Quintana Roo. To do this, we used six landscape units, which were defined by integrating both, the local knowledge of Maya people and literature review. To identify the ecological services that communities perceived from the forest, open and semi-structured interviews, participant observation, depth interviews and community workshops were used. The results show that interviewees identified provisioning services, regulating and maintenance services, and cultural services. In particular, a larger number of ecological services was perceived from the following two landscape units: "high rainforest" ("monte alto") and the "acahual of 20 or more years-old", whereas the "Savannah" was identified as the one which least services provided. Moreover, using the development studies theory, our study identified the three dimensions of the concept of "human well-being": the material, the relational and the subjective dimensions. Furthermore, our study also manages to introduce the relationships of these dimensions with the ecological services perceived by the studied communities. Our results show a clear interaction Maya society-nature, and are useful to guide community and governmental decision-making in the management of local natural resources. <![CDATA[<b>La ciudad imaginada</b>: <b>el paisaje neoclásico en Guadalajara y sus productores</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es En el texto se aborda una aproximación al proceso de construcción social del imaginario urbano de Guadalajara durante el siglo XIX, éste se caracteriza por el privilegio de obras arquitectónicas neoclásicas que conformaron un valor paisajístico institucionalizado que se apoyó en la reiteración de representaciones de edificios como el Hospicio Cabañas y el Teatro Degollado. El análisis contempla la articulación entre las dimensiones material y simbólica. Se da seguimiento a una cadena de conocimiento de raíz novohispana que cultivó ideas ilustradas que arrancaron con la llegada del arquitecto José Gutiérrez a Guadalajara y posteriormente se concatenó con la inteligencia local personificada por Manuel Gómez Ibarra, Jacobo Gálvez y David Bravo, gracias a la existencia del Instituto de Ciencias de Jalisco y la Sociedad de Ingenieros de Jalisco. La lectura del imaginario se vale del recurso de las representaciones gráficas y literarias: para tal efecto se utilizaron principalmente la hoja "Guadalajara" publicada en 1887 en la revista La Ilustración Española y Americana y los relatos del viajero Eduardo Gibbon plasmados en su libro Guadalajara (La Florencia Mexicana), editado en 1893.<hr/>The text offers an approach to an understanding of the process of social construction of urban imagery of Guadalajara during the nineteenth century. This was characterized by the privileging of certain neoclassical architectural works that formed an institutionalized landscape with repeated representations of buildings such as the Cabañas Hospice and the Degollado Theater. The analysis provides a link between material and symbolic dimensions. Monitoring is provided by a chain of knowledge with roots in New Spain that cultivated enlightened ideas that flourished with the arrival of architect José Gutiérrez in Guadalajara and then linked to the local intelligentsia personified by Manuel Gómez Ibarra, Jacobo Gálvez and David Bravo, thanks to the existence of the Institute of Science and Engineering Society of Jalisco. Reading imaginary resources uses graphic and literary representations: for this purpose the "Guadalajara" scheet published in 1887 in the journal La Ilustración Española y Americana and stories of traveler Edward Gibbon embodied in his book Guadalajara (the Mexican Florence), published in 1893. <![CDATA[<b>La Baja California inventada</b>: <b>visiones sobre un territorio mexicano a mediados del siglo XX</b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100009&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Este artículo examina los viajes de Peter Gerhard y Ángel Bassols Batalla por la Baja California en los años cincuenta. Ante sus ojos emerge un espacio inventado a partir de la experiencia de cada uno en la península. Gerhard, como viajero, integraba una imagen práctica, placentera y lúdica dirigida a los turistas estadounidenses que con la rapidez y la seguridad del automóvil, podrían disfrutar del sol, las playas, los ranchos y la aventura del pasado histórico en los sitios misionales, además de la caza y la pesca deportiva. Por su parte, Bassols Batalla se adentró al territorio como explorador y, a través de una planeación racional de sus travesías y del análisis geoeconómico como metodología, concluyó que era necesario favorecer la colonización, la consolidación del Estado, el interés nacional y la reafirmación de la soberanía. La comparación entre las visiones de ambos autores señala coincidencias y diferencias que ayudan a comprender la relevancia del viaje geográfico como fuente de información y método de trabajo, indispensable para entender la realidad de una región aislada de México.<hr/>This article examines the travels of Peter Gerhard and Ángel Bassols Batalla through the Baja California in the 1950s from a comparative perspective. From the theoretical viewpoints of the history of geography and the geographical journey as sources of information and working method in situ, the observation and empirical knowledge of the territory are established. The traveling style of both authors involves a cultural consideration, since an invented space emerges before their eyes from their own experience in the peninsula. As a traveler, Peter Gerhard journeyed the peninsula seeking the ancient missions that distinguished Baja California. That is why he organized and integrated the information in a guide, in collaboration with Howard E. Gulick. He conceived the guide for tourists of the United States interested in this region so close to their country. Published in 1956, the guide became the most complete instrument for vacationists in general, and also for sport fishermen, hunters, explorers and campers. Although the guide was aimed for drivers, it also provided precise facts for people sailing in yachts or arriving in private planes. Due to their knowledge of the peninsular space, Gerhard and Gulick designed a series of maps by sections, and they proposed ten routes that could be followed, most of them by land, to arrive at any place through main roads, trails or paths, where travel was only possible by foot or mule. The routes, the historical and cultural aspects, as well as the practical recommendations for tourists given in the guide, prepared the way for what tourists would expect to look with their own eyes, and at the same time it facilitated mobility in a distant and isolated territory. In sum, as a traveler, Gerhard integrated a practical, pleasant and playful image for tourists of the United States that, with the speed and safety of the automobile could enjoy the sun, beaches, ranches, and embark in the adventure of the historical past at mission sites, in addition to hunting and sport-fishing. On the other hand, Bassols Batalla went deep into the territory as an explorer. He highlighted the value of his expeditions to Baja California by applying a geo-economic analysis methodology based in natural resources, he focused on productive activities (agriculture, cattle breeding, mining and hydraulic and sea undertakings), and became aware of the reality and problems of this region. For him, such perspective transformed the way of understanding the economic and social planning of Mexico. The relevant issue was the settling of the territory, the availability of water for irrigation, the study of soils and vegetation, the timber reserves in the forests, as well as the conservation and rational exploitation of fauna. Mining required more attention and a thorough examination of its reserves. Bassols Batalla expressed his opinions about the conservation of historical monuments, especially regarding the Jesuit and Dominican missions of the peninsula. Industrialization, and agriculture with its diversification in new cultivation areas, was a source of employment. For Bassols it was necessary to transform the roads and open a trans-peninsular highway to favor tourism and local development. In the eyes of this geographer, Baja California was the region of the future, but he concluded that first it was necessary to favor colonization, to consolidate the State and promote the national interest, as well as the reassertion of sovereignty. Finally, the comparison between the visions of Gerhard and Bassols show coincidences and differences that help comprehend the relevance of geographic travel as a source of information and as a working method, essential to understand the reality of an isolated region of Mexico. When Baja California was still isolated from the rest of the country, and at the same time its economic potential and its attractive landscape began to capture the public attention, the journeys of these authors, succeeded in inserting or adding the peninsula in the social imaginary of both the United States and Mexico. <![CDATA[<b><i>Espacios y prácticas de la Geografía y la Historia Natural de México (1821-1940)</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100010&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Este artículo examina los viajes de Peter Gerhard y Ángel Bassols Batalla por la Baja California en los años cincuenta. Ante sus ojos emerge un espacio inventado a partir de la experiencia de cada uno en la península. Gerhard, como viajero, integraba una imagen práctica, placentera y lúdica dirigida a los turistas estadounidenses que con la rapidez y la seguridad del automóvil, podrían disfrutar del sol, las playas, los ranchos y la aventura del pasado histórico en los sitios misionales, además de la caza y la pesca deportiva. Por su parte, Bassols Batalla se adentró al territorio como explorador y, a través de una planeación racional de sus travesías y del análisis geoeconómico como metodología, concluyó que era necesario favorecer la colonización, la consolidación del Estado, el interés nacional y la reafirmación de la soberanía. La comparación entre las visiones de ambos autores señala coincidencias y diferencias que ayudan a comprender la relevancia del viaje geográfico como fuente de información y método de trabajo, indispensable para entender la realidad de una región aislada de México.<hr/>This article examines the travels of Peter Gerhard and Ángel Bassols Batalla through the Baja California in the 1950s from a comparative perspective. From the theoretical viewpoints of the history of geography and the geographical journey as sources of information and working method in situ, the observation and empirical knowledge of the territory are established. The traveling style of both authors involves a cultural consideration, since an invented space emerges before their eyes from their own experience in the peninsula. As a traveler, Peter Gerhard journeyed the peninsula seeking the ancient missions that distinguished Baja California. That is why he organized and integrated the information in a guide, in collaboration with Howard E. Gulick. He conceived the guide for tourists of the United States interested in this region so close to their country. Published in 1956, the guide became the most complete instrument for vacationists in general, and also for sport fishermen, hunters, explorers and campers. Although the guide was aimed for drivers, it also provided precise facts for people sailing in yachts or arriving in private planes. Due to their knowledge of the peninsular space, Gerhard and Gulick designed a series of maps by sections, and they proposed ten routes that could be followed, most of them by land, to arrive at any place through main roads, trails or paths, where travel was only possible by foot or mule. The routes, the historical and cultural aspects, as well as the practical recommendations for tourists given in the guide, prepared the way for what tourists would expect to look with their own eyes, and at the same time it facilitated mobility in a distant and isolated territory. In sum, as a traveler, Gerhard integrated a practical, pleasant and playful image for tourists of the United States that, with the speed and safety of the automobile could enjoy the sun, beaches, ranches, and embark in the adventure of the historical past at mission sites, in addition to hunting and sport-fishing. On the other hand, Bassols Batalla went deep into the territory as an explorer. He highlighted the value of his expeditions to Baja California by applying a geo-economic analysis methodology based in natural resources, he focused on productive activities (agriculture, cattle breeding, mining and hydraulic and sea undertakings), and became aware of the reality and problems of this region. For him, such perspective transformed the way of understanding the economic and social planning of Mexico. The relevant issue was the settling of the territory, the availability of water for irrigation, the study of soils and vegetation, the timber reserves in the forests, as well as the conservation and rational exploitation of fauna. Mining required more attention and a thorough examination of its reserves. Bassols Batalla expressed his opinions about the conservation of historical monuments, especially regarding the Jesuit and Dominican missions of the peninsula. Industrialization, and agriculture with its diversification in new cultivation areas, was a source of employment. For Bassols it was necessary to transform the roads and open a trans-peninsular highway to favor tourism and local development. In the eyes of this geographer, Baja California was the region of the future, but he concluded that first it was necessary to favor colonization, to consolidate the State and promote the national interest, as well as the reassertion of sovereignty. Finally, the comparison between the visions of Gerhard and Bassols show coincidences and differences that help comprehend the relevance of geographic travel as a source of information and as a working method, essential to understand the reality of an isolated region of Mexico. When Baja California was still isolated from the rest of the country, and at the same time its economic potential and its attractive landscape began to capture the public attention, the journeys of these authors, succeeded in inserting or adding the peninsula in the social imaginary of both the United States and Mexico. <![CDATA[<b><i>La configuración socio-espacial del trabajo rural y las relaciones campo-ciudad</i></b>: <b><i>Dos localidades del centro de México</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112015000100011&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Este artículo examina los viajes de Peter Gerhard y Ángel Bassols Batalla por la Baja California en los años cincuenta. Ante sus ojos emerge un espacio inventado a partir de la experiencia de cada uno en la península. Gerhard, como viajero, integraba una imagen práctica, placentera y lúdica dirigida a los turistas estadounidenses que con la rapidez y la seguridad del automóvil, podrían disfrutar del sol, las playas, los ranchos y la aventura del pasado histórico en los sitios misionales, además de la caza y la pesca deportiva. Por su parte, Bassols Batalla se adentró al territorio como explorador y, a través de una planeación racional de sus travesías y del análisis geoeconómico como metodología, concluyó que era necesario favorecer la colonización, la consolidación del Estado, el interés nacional y la reafirmación de la soberanía. La comparación entre las visiones de ambos autores señala coincidencias y diferencias que ayudan a comprender la relevancia del viaje geográfico como fuente de información y método de trabajo, indispensable para entender la realidad de una región aislada de México.<hr/>This article examines the travels of Peter Gerhard and Ángel Bassols Batalla through the Baja California in the 1950s from a comparative perspective. From the theoretical viewpoints of the history of geography and the geographical journey as sources of information and working method in situ, the observation and empirical knowledge of the territory are established. The traveling style of both authors involves a cultural consideration, since an invented space emerges before their eyes from their own experience in the peninsula. As a traveler, Peter Gerhard journeyed the peninsula seeking the ancient missions that distinguished Baja California. That is why he organized and integrated the information in a guide, in collaboration with Howard E. Gulick. He conceived the guide for tourists of the United States interested in this region so close to their country. Published in 1956, the guide became the most complete instrument for vacationists in general, and also for sport fishermen, hunters, explorers and campers. Although the guide was aimed for drivers, it also provided precise facts for people sailing in yachts or arriving in private planes. Due to their knowledge of the peninsular space, Gerhard and Gulick designed a series of maps by sections, and they proposed ten routes that could be followed, most of them by land, to arrive at any place through main roads, trails or paths, where travel was only possible by foot or mule. The routes, the historical and cultural aspects, as well as the practical recommendations for tourists given in the guide, prepared the way for what tourists would expect to look with their own eyes, and at the same time it facilitated mobility in a distant and isolated territory. In sum, as a traveler, Gerhard integrated a practical, pleasant and playful image for tourists of the United States that, with the speed and safety of the automobile could enjoy the sun, beaches, ranches, and embark in the adventure of the historical past at mission sites, in addition to hunting and sport-fishing. On the other hand, Bassols Batalla went deep into the territory as an explorer. He highlighted the value of his expeditions to Baja California by applying a geo-economic analysis methodology based in natural resources, he focused on productive activities (agriculture, cattle breeding, mining and hydraulic and sea undertakings), and became aware of the reality and problems of this region. For him, such perspective transformed the way of understanding the economic and social planning of Mexico. The relevant issue was the settling of the territory, the availability of water for irrigation, the study of soils and vegetation, the timber reserves in the forests, as well as the conservation and rational exploitation of fauna. Mining required more attention and a thorough examination of its reserves. Bassols Batalla expressed his opinions about the conservation of historical monuments, especially regarding the Jesuit and Dominican missions of the peninsula. Industrialization, and agriculture with its diversification in new cultivation areas, was a source of employment. For Bassols it was necessary to transform the roads and open a trans-peninsular highway to favor tourism and local development. In the eyes of this geographer, Baja California was the region of the future, but he concluded that first it was necessary to favor colonization, to consolidate the State and promote the national interest, as well as the reassertion of sovereignty. Finally, the comparison between the visions of Gerhard and Bassols show coincidences and differences that help comprehend the relevance of geographic travel as a source of information and as a working method, essential to understand the reality of an isolated region of Mexico. When Baja California was still isolated from the rest of the country, and at the same time its economic potential and its attractive landscape began to capture the public attention, the journeys of these authors, succeeded in inserting or adding the peninsula in the social imaginary of both the United States and Mexico.