Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Investigaciones geográficas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=0188-461120160002&lang=es vol. num. 90 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[La producción de la vulnerabilidad ante deslizamientos de ladera: el <em>habitus de riesgo</em> en dos comunidades expuestas a deslizamientos en Teziutlán, Puebla, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200007&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: This paper analyzes the social conditions that produce vulnerability to landslides in two neighborhoods of Teziutlan, Puebla. The goal is to elicit the logic of action that influences vulnerability of these communities, using the concept of risk habitus derived from Bourdieu's theoretical perspective. This framework provides an analytic framework to understand the social logic and every day decision-making processes that relate to risk perceptions and responses of the residents of these landslide-prone settlements. The methods involved the quantitative interpretation of linkages among variables related to residents' social, cultural and symbolic capitals, which were collected through two complementary surveys. The selected variables focused on previous disaster experiences and social learning, as well as cooperation networks assessment (solidarity between neighbors, trust in local authorities, experience with disaster situations, perception of risk and attachment to place) in each community. The findings show that individuals' judgments of their own vulnerability are based on their perceptions of preparedness to face a risk situation; it does not matter the actual hazard level to which they are exposed. This relates to their high level of trust in local authorities and the belief that these authorities will help them in a disaster situation. On the other hand, both neighborhoods are certain about suffering future damages in similar conditions than previous disaster events, even though they have very different objective levels of hazard exposure. In both cases, they strongly believe in their capacity or respond to a landslide, despite that neither of them has invested time or resources in preparedness.<hr/>Resumen: Este artículo es un análisis de algunas de las condiciones que reproducen la vulnerabilidad social ante deslizamientos de ladera en dos asentamientos de la ciudad de Teziutlán, Puebla. La propuesta presentada parte del conocimiento de las percepciones, valoraciones y acciones que reproducen condiciones de riesgo a partir de la propuesta conceptual de habitus de riesgo, desde la perspectiva sociológica de Pierre Bourdieu. Este marco conceptual aporta elementos para comprender las lógicas que imperan en los habitantes de los asentamientos de Teziutlán ante situaciones potenciales de riesgo por deslizamientos de ladera. La propuesta que aquí se desarrolla busca interpretar comparativamente las condiciones que reproducen la vulnerabilidad a partir del análisis cuantitativo del capital social, cultural y simbólico (basado en redes familiares, solidaridad entre vecinos, confianza a las autoridades, las experiencias de situaciones de desastres, percepción del riesgo y el tiempo de residencia en la vivienda actual) de las dos comunidades en estudio. Los resultados muestran que las valoraciones sobre el nivel de preparación para enfrentar una situación de riesgo son determinantes para explicar su vulnerabilidad, sin importar el nivel de la exposición a la amenaza al que estén sujetos. Esto se relaciona con el alto nivel de confianza que tienen hacia las autoridades locales, así como la seguridad de que estas autoridades los ayudaran en una situación de desastre. Por otro lado, la población de ambas comunidades manifiesta altas expectativas de que sufrirán daños en condiciones similares si ocurriera un evento de desastre como en el pasado, aun cuando una u otra comunidad tienen distintos niveles de exposición a deslizamientos. En ambos casos, la población cree fuertemente en su capacidad de respuesta ante deslizamientos de ladera, a pesar de que ninguna de las comunidades invierte tiempo o recursos en prevención. <![CDATA[Artefactos y correcciones a los Modelos Digitales de Terreno provenientes del LiDAR]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200028&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: LiDAR data provide high-resolution Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), but some artifacts affect their accuracy and precision. This includes the DEMs generated by the Mexican National Institute of Statistics and Geography (Instituto Nacional de Estadísitica y Geografía, INEGI), especially LiDAR Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) related to the bare earth surface. These artifacts correspond to triangular facets observed in different small and scattered areas, as well as on the surface of the rivers. When dense gallery forests are present, river surfaces have a high roughness also associated with multiple triangular facets. The treatments developed in this research mitigate and/or eliminate these drawbacks and improve the LiDAR DTMs. Calculations based on the elevation Root Mean Square Roughness and the elevation Root Mean Square Error confirm that the method presented here allows DTM products to be improved in order to realize accurate simulations and precise measurements.<hr/>Resumen: Los datos LiDAR permiten generar Modelos Digitales de Elevación (MDE) de alta resolución, sin embargo, algunos artefactos resultantes del método de interpolación utilizado afectan su exactitud y precisión. Esta observación concierne, entre otros, a los MDE generados por el Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), especialmente los Modelos Digitales de Terreno (MDT), que se relacionan con la superficie terrestre. Estos artefactos corresponden a facetas triangulares en elevaciones, meandros, y superficies de los ríos. Los tratamientos desarrollados en esta investigación disminuyen y/o eliminan dichos artefactos mejorando los MDT. Cálculos basados en el Error Cuadrático Medio de la Rugosidad y el Error Cuadrático Medio de la elevación muestran que el método presentado en este trabajo mejora la precisión de los productos digitales, lo que permite realizar simulaciones eficaces y mediciones precisas. <![CDATA[Fluoruro en el agua subterránea: niveles, origen y control natural en la región de Tenextepango, Morelos, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200040&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: El agua subterránea que consume la población en la región de Tenextepango, Morelos, contiene fluoruro en concentración que varía de 0.5 a 1.9 mg/L, causando problema de fluororis dental a la población. El objetivo de este trabajo es conocer los niveles de fluoruro en el agua subterránea, su distribución y su procedencia en la región de Tenexpenango, Morelos, México. Para esto se elaboró el modelo hidrogeológico soportado con análisis químicos del agua obtenida en 17 pozos y cinco manantiales; el pH, alcalinidad, CE y temperatura del agua se registraron en campo. La concentración de cationes, aniones y elementos traza se determinó por ICP-MS. Los resultados indican que la concentración de fluoruro, y temperatura del agua subterránea, son mayores en los pozos que extraen agua sin interrupción y menor en aquéllos que bombean solo nueve horas-día. La variación de estos parámetros sugiere que los primeros extraen agua de un flujo con mayor profundidad de recorrido con respecto al agua de otros pozos, indicando que el incremento en el tiempo de extracción induce un flujo vertical de agua (ascendente) permitiendo que en tales pozos se descargue un sistema de flujo más profundo, cuyo contenido de fluoruro y valor de temperatura son sensiblemente mayores al resto de los demás pozos. Como conclusión, la fuente del fluoruro al agua subterránea en esta región está en las rocas que conforman del relieve que rodea la planicie y principalmente en aquel ubicado fuera de la planicie hacia el noreste (Sierra Nevada). El fluoruro es liberado al agua subterránea por el proceso del intemperismo químico de rocas ígneas intermedias y félsicas.<hr/>Abstract: Fluoride in drinking water has been a major concern in many parts of the world as it diminishes the acceptable good quality of groundwater sources. In Mexico this health hazard has been mainly identified along the Sierra Madre Occidental (of felsic nature) and neighbouring territory. Little concern has been given in other parts of the country, as in the State of Morelos in which groundwater is considered by the Ministry of Health fluoride-free. The water supply to the population in the quantity and quality required for human consumption is a public policy issue in Mexico; fluoride (F-) natural content in groundwater varies from 0.001 to 25 mg/L. The highest concentrations are reported in studies carried out in the central, northern, north-western, and areas in the north-eastern part of the country, where a high rate of dental and skeletal fluorosis has been reported. In the southern part of the country, there are very few studies on fluoride; however, there are cases of dental fluorosis, reported in some communities. This study was carried out in the Tenextepango region in the state of Morelos, located just to the south of Mexico City. Groundwater consumed by the population in this region has a fluoride concentration from 0.5 to 1.9 mg/ L, causing a dental fluorosis condition; infants up to 7 years of age and senior citizens being the most vulnerable. Localities with the highest presence of fluorosis are: Tenextepango, La Longaniza, El Salitre and Xalostoc, where dental fluorosis occurs with a concentration of 0.9 mg/L of fluoride, only. The aim of this work was to define fluoride levels in groundwater, their distribution in the region of Tenexpenango, its origin, as well as to document its presence and control in the water through the concept of the groundwater flow systems. The hydrogeological conceptual model was established with information on the geological context, water-level monitoring in boreholes, and chemical analyses. Analytical information was obtained from groundwater samples collected on a plain (17 boreholes and five springs) where field (pH, alkalinity, EC and water temperature) parameters were measured at borehole-head. Major cations and anions, as well as trace element content were determined by ICP-MS. These physicochemical data were useful in deducing hydrogeochemical processes, a possible chemical stratification of the water and to comparatively derive the depth travelled by water within the geological environment of reference. Results suggest that fluoride concentration and groundwater temperature are higher in boreholes pumping continuously, and lower in boreholes taping water only nine hours a day. This response proposes former boreholes to be inducing up-coning of deeper groundwater flows of regional nature Any scheme proposing an increase in water extraction (either in time or in quantity) is to enhance vertical ascending flow to reach the production level permitting such boreholes to capture deeper and warmer regional flow systems with higher fluoride content than that in other boreholes tapping in an intermittent basis. This hydrodynamic result of extraction time as a continuous decrease in the piezometric surface, is also showing as a decrease of the hydraulic head in the vertical direction just below the extraction level of the borehole, resulting in a deep water ascending flow, whose fluoride content is higher than in the cooler system above (shallow local flow). Also, the calcium content in the warm groundwater is lower than in the cool one, and vice versa. Also a high fluoride concentration corresponds with a high sodium content supporting evidence of a large flow path and long travelling time. Due to affinity of fluoride to calcium in water these ions bind to form fluorite mineral, which precipitates. Regarding fluoride origin in groundwater, it is meant to be released from rocks of rhyolitic nature primarily by the chemical weathering through hydrolysis processes. The resulting dissolution is from minerals containing fluoride as albite, biotite, amphibole, phlogopite and fluorite, which are widely present in the felsic igneous rocks in the area; once in the groundwater, fluoride will move through hydrodynamic dispersion. It was concluded that the origin of fluoride in groundwater in this region is result of chemical processes enhanced by travelling time and the high temperature on the regional flows generated beyond the surrounding plain, mainly through felsic rock formations located in the surrounding mountains at the northeast of the study area. The temperature value and fluoride content in the extracted water in the area vary depending on the extraction time (ie, the longer and/or higher extraction rate). The increase of these parameters show that a continue extraction induces the arrival of water from a deeper regional flow containing fluoride in a significant high content as compared to the shallow water. The control of water extraction with low fluoride content requires conducting control tests on the boreholes allowing to improve the natural quality of the extracted water, allowing a reduction of the fluoride content by setting fluoride vs. temperature at different time intervals after extraction started; and fluoride vs. extraction rate. It becomes important to test different extraction rates (produce different hydraulic gradients in the extraction borehole) to define the extraction rate (or extraction time) with the least fluoride content possible to achieve a fluoride control. The understanding of the groundwater functioning under extraction may avoid additional side-effects of fluoride induction. This could take advantage of the natural system without installing unnecessary and high cost treatment plants which would require costly maintenance, and specialized personnel, which, however, will produce a hazardous sludge that need to be properly managed to avoid additional health risks. It was found advisable that the inhabitants of this region decrease by natural means the fluoride inflow from boreholes containing high fluoride, while a diet with high calcium content should be implemented. <![CDATA[Monitoreo de cambios en la densidad de cobertura forestal en bosque templado usando fotografías aéreas digitales de alta resolución]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200059&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Abstract: A multiannual series of high-resolution small-format aerial digital photography was employed to assess changes in the forest canopy density in a temperate forest. A combination of conventional and adapted techniques of photogrammetry and photo interpretation was used, establishing a specific method. This method has been proved in a twelve-year period (1999-2011) in the core zone of the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve, in the states of Mexico and Michoacán, in Mexico, employing orthorectified mosaics as base maps to evaluate biennial changes. Photographs were assessed through traditional photointerpretation marking changes on acetates, located over the paper prints, creating new polygons. These were transferred to the orthomosaic directly through the computer screen using the acetates and at least three control points, complying with the principle of radial triangulation. Forest was separated into the following canopy density classes: closed, semi-closed, semi-open, open, and deforested. Accuracy assessment in forest canopy density classification was estimated by field sampling, and employing error matrices being 95%. Since 2003, this method has been used to determine appropriate payment for environmental services. This payment together with an intense interaction with the communities has led to a reduction in forest degradation and deforestation in the core zone.<hr/>Resumen: Se utilizaron series multitemporales de fotografías aéreas digitales de alta resolución de pequeño formato para evaluar los cambios en la densidad de cobertura forestal en un bosque templado. Una combinación de técnicas convencionales y adaptadas de fotogrametría y fotointerpretación fueron utilizadas para establecer un método específico de evaluación. Este método ha sido probado en un periodo de doce años (1999-2011) en la zona núcleo de la Reserva de la Biosfera Mariposa Monarca, localizada en los estados de México y Michoacán, en México, usando mosaicos ortorectificados como mapas base para evaluar cambios bienales. Las imágenes fueron fotointerpretadas de manera tradicional marcando los cambios sobre acetatos, colocados sobre las imágenes impresas, creando así nuevos polígonos. Éstos fueron transferidos directamente de los acetatos al ortomosaico a través de la pantalla de la computadora, usando al menos tres puntos de control, cumpliendo así con el principio de triangulación radial. El bosque fue separado en las siguientes clases de cobertura forestal: cerrada, semi-cerrada, semi-abierta, abierta y deforestada. La evaluación en la exactitud en la clasificación de densidad de cobertura fue estimada a través de muestreos en campo, empleando matrices de confusión, siendo del 95%. A partir de 2003, este método ha sido utilizado para determinar el pago por servicios ambientales. Dicho pago, junto con una gran interacción con las comunidades, se ha traducido en una reducción en la degradación forestal y la deforestación en la zona núcleo de la Reserva. <![CDATA[Componentes del paisaje como predictores de cubiertas de vegetación: estudio de caso del estado de Michoacán, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200075&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: El estado de Michoacán alberga una yuxtaposición de riquezas culturales y naturales destacable que se entrelazan entre condiciones geológicas, geográficas y ecológicas. Este patrimonio natural y cultural está hoy día amenazado, por ende, los tomadores de decisiones buscan información de línea base para restaurar y reorientar las acciones de desarrollo. El objetivo de este artículo, por tanto, fue predecir los patrones de cubierta vegetal oriunda a través de un método replicable. La predicción se basó en atributos climáticos, geológicos, geomorfológicos y ecológicos, jerárquicamente yuxtapuestos a través de un sistema de información geográfica (SIG). Las reglas de decisión se basaron en lógica booleana dando énfasis a la zonificación bioclimatológica. La predicción de la cubierta vegetal oriunda mostró que los bosques estacionales tropicales cubren la mayor superficie, mientras que la vegetación acuática es la menos representada. Para concluir, los atributos que delimitan el paisaje, jerárquicamente organizados, probaron ser un método robusto y replicable para reconstruir los patrones de la cubierta vegetal oriunda, actualmente en áreas de cobertura antropogénica. Este resultado, expresado en un mapa, servirá como línea base para predecir los escenarios futuros a la luz de los cambios climáticos previstos.<hr/>Abstract: The State of Michoacan, as well as a handful of other hot spot regions worldwide, harbors an outstanding overlap between natural and cultural richness as a result of intermingle climatic geological, geographical and ecological conditions. Presently both, natural and cultural heritages are jeopardized at most hot spots worldwide and policy makers seek urgently for robust base line information to restore and eventually reorient development. Spatially explicit base line data bases have been recognized as critical in order to facilitate design and implementation of public policies. In this sense, dynamics of native land cover/vegetation patterns (natural units) have helped in enormously to provide base line information and predict outcomes. A rather critical issue relies in developing replicable and robust methods to predict natural units, as a direct response of climatic, geological and geomorphological data (physical units). Often natural units are used as spatial criteria to delineate physical units, yet these latter are regarded as the responsible variables for delimiting natural units. This tautological thought has been largely neglected in most scientific literature in Mexico when constructing cartographic outputs. In this article, we argue that native land cover/vegetation patterns are the response variable of physical attributes at a meso-scale level. Hence, the objective of this investigation was to predict native land cover/vegetation patterns based upon climatic, geological, geomorphological and ecological attributes hierarchically intermingled. The contribution was made in order to developing a robust and replicable method accordingly to current available information worldwide. The research took place in Michoacan state as it is regarded a typical hotspot comprising geo-ecological complex features. To illustrate this further, Michoacan harbors over 800 tree species which overpasses the number of species of all Western Europe. Prediction modeling was with the aid of a geographic information system. Decisions rules were based upon Boolean logic giving special attention to emerging bioclimatic zoning techniques. The later consists in providing gradients of temperature and precipitation along seasonal threshold values so that sound matching between physical and natural units is found. In addition, an innovative aspect regards the cartographic expression of these gradients of temperature and precipitation here referred as termotype and ombrotypes respectively. Outcomes demonstrated that prediction of native land cover/vegetation patterns was feasible within a geo-ecologically complex region as Michoacan. In addition, dissecting attributes of the landscape hierarchically organized proved to be a robust and replicable method to reconstruct native vegetation patterns at places currently covered by anthropogenic activities. Tropical seasonally dry forests covers most surface still covers most surface (28.52% of the State), whereas, temperate forests cover the second most abundant types (27.71% of the State). Aquatic vegetation (0.22% of the State), and Xerophytic scrubland (0.08% of the State), are currently the least represented types. The prediction modeling indicated that tropical seasonally dry forests has been depleted in 18.68% of the State, while temperate forests in 14.98% of the State. Ecotones delimiting tropical seasonally dry and temperate forests are under drastic threat because two mayor productive systems are gaining global importance. Avocado and Mango produced at these regions are expanding their ranges as a result of global demands. In consequence our current findings may serve to reorient policy makers in order to find tradeoffs and thresholds to conciliate encroachment of productive systems and maintenance of environmental services provided by native land cover/vegetation patterns. To conclude, native land cover/vegetation patterns were predicted as a response variable of physical attributes so that tautological thinking was avoided. The method developed may be applied to other hot spots provided that physical information is available. A practical outcome regard the obtained land cover/vegetation map, which may serve as baseline to predict future scenarios in the light of current man-made and climatic changes foreseen. <![CDATA[Análisis jerárquico de la intensidad de cambio de cobertura/uso de suelo y deforestación (2000-2008) en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200089&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: El análisis jerárquico de intensidad de cambio de cobertura/uso de suelo es un marco cuantitativo de análisis espacial anidado que permite estimar los cambios en tres niveles de orden, intervalo de tiempo, categoría y transición, a partir de una matriz de cambio. Se presenta su aplicación para dos periodos de tiempo 2000-2004 y 2004-2008 en la Reserva de la Biosfera Sierra de Manantlán, área de estudio altamente heterogénea en términos de los tipos de vegetación y usos del suelo. Se usó cartografía del INEGI a escala 1:50 000 actualizada mediante una imagen Landsat ETM+ del 2000 e imágenes SPOT para 2004 y 2008. El análisis permitió conocer en qué intervalo de tiempo la tasa anual general de cambio es más rápida, cuáles son las categorías más activas y cuáles son latentes; cuáles son las categorías objetivo para las transiciones activas, y si el patrón de cambio es estable en el tiempo. Se observó una mayor tasa anual de cambio entre 2000 y 2004 en comparación con el periodo 2004-2008. A nivel de categorías, se encontraron altas tasas de deforestación de las selvas tropicales hacia usos agropecuarios, y latencia en bosques templados con baja intensidad de transición hacia usos agropecuarios. En particular la actividad ganadera arraigada en la región aparece como factor promotor del proceso de deforestación, que en la praxis sobre el terreno se expresa diferencialmente en selvas y bosques.<hr/>Abstract: Hierarchical intensity analysis of land cover/use change is a quantitative framework of nested spatial analyses that allows the estimation of changes using a change matrix at three levels of order: time interval, category, and transition. The intention of this article is to present the advantages of this framework in analyzing the dynamics of land use/ cover change using the change matrix, which has been commonly used for this purpose. However, even though the change matrix identifies some key patterns, it does not indicate whether the observed patterns have derived from processes that are systematically more or less intense than a random or uniform process. Among the most important considerations in intensity of change analysis is the use of a hierarchical order that starts at the time interval level, then takes into account the level of categories and culminates at level of transitions. Thus, the areas of each category at the start and end times serve to establish a uniform basis for the comparison between the expected and observed changes. In this way it is possible to define more clearly the patterns of change between time intervals and identifying potential drivers of the process. We present apply this analysis for two time periods (2000-2004 and 2004-2008) in the Biosphere Reserve Sierra de Manantlán (BRSM), a highly heterogeneous area in terms of vegetation type and land use, which was declared as a reserve in the last decade of the twentieth century. We used the cartography from INEGI at a 1:50,000 scale, updated by means of a Landsat ETM+ image for the year 2000, and SPOT 5 images for 2004 and 2008. Our analysis has allowed us to determine the time interval in which the general annual change rate was higher; which categories were most active and which latent; which categories were targets of active transitions; and if the pattern of change remained stable through time. We observed a fast annual rate of change between 2000 and 2004, with an absolute change of 70.936 hectares in comparison to the period 2004-2008, which showed a slower rate of change, of 2,194 ha in absolute terms. These results show a deceleration in the overall process of transformation of land use, which could be related to the publication and implementation of the BRSM management plan in 2000, which may have restricted land-use change in the core zones. At the category level, we found high rates of deforestation of tropical forests to agricultural and livestock production uses, and latency in temperate forests with a slower intensity of transition towards these uses. In this regard, the temperate forests are latent coverages that do not fall in the change intensively in the overall dynamics of change and could mean they are in a state of minor disturbance. However, there might be a degradation process, since in the case of introduction of cattle, this grazing free mainly in the rainy season directly affecting the temperate forest understory. In terms of change rate, the tropical forests had an estimated -1% per year rate. In contrast, forests showed lower rates of change of -0.5% per year. The land uses change rates such as irrigated agriculture, induced pasture, urban areas and iron mine were above 1% per year, indicating an increase in its surface in both periods. An intensive process of change observed in both periods at the category level is the loss of tropical dry forest. The areas of higher change are located in the buffer and influence zones, where the management plan does not regulate land use. In particular, long-established livestock production activity in the region appears as the driving factor of deforestation, affecting both tropical and temperate forests though at different rates. Finally, the cartography derived from the analysis of intensity of change is a contribution for decision-making concerning the management of the BRSM with emphasis in the buffer zone. <![CDATA[Zonificación agroecológica del <em>Coffea arabica</em> en el municipio Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero, México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200105&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Las zonas agroecológicas del Coffea arabica son aquellas que presentan las condiciones y características del potencial biofísico favorables para su producción con óptimos rendimientos. El análisis de las condiciones geomorfológicas, del régimen hidrotérmico y de la cobertura edáfica en el municipio Atoyac de Álvarez, estado de Guerrero, México, y su representación cartográfica, mediante plataformas SIG, permitió identificar las áreas con potencialidades diferenciadas para el cultivo del Coffea arabica con vistas al establecimiento de su zonificación agroecológica. El enfoque sistémico y el procesamiento automatizado de la información propició la identificación de las áreas con potencial óptimo, medio, bajo y muy bajo. Los potenciales con una aptitud natural óptima se localizan en las zonas de montañas bajas, entre 1 100 a 1 500 msnm, con pendientes entre 1.1° hasta 18°, considerándose pendientes suaves y moderadas; con precipitaciones entre los 1 500 a 2 000 mm, en zonas semicálidas con espectro térmico de 18 °C a 22 °C y sobre suelos Acrisoles y con una clave jerarquizada Ah+Bh+Hh/2, con unidad primaria Acrisol. En el municipio la superficie de potenciales óptimos alcanza las 7 163.47 ha; la de medio, las 28 143.75 ha; la de bajo, las 62 130.65 ha, y la de potencial muy bajo unas 58 411.38 ha. Por su contenido, este enfoque y metodología pueden ser implementados en cualquier marco geográfico, adecuándose a las escalas cartográficas y evaluando las distintas apreciaciones agroecológicas, como aportación a las políticas y decisiones gubernamentales o empresariales para la planeación y el fomento de las áreas cafetaleras.<hr/>Abstract: Costa Grande, the largest coffee-producing region in the state of Guerrero, is where the lowest yields are obtained at the state level: An average 249 kg per ha, according to Sagarpa et al. (2011). This may be due not only to the low plant density in the area (approximately 1 274 plants per hectare), but also to the lack of chemical fertilization. It is estimated that chemical fertilizers are applied to only 0.2% of the coffee plants, and only 3% of them benefit from the manure added to the soil. With the aim to establish agro-ecological areas for Coffea arabica (i.e ., those with the most favorable agricultural conditions and the highest biophysical potential for optimum yields) a territorial survey was carried out in the municipality of Atoyac de Álvarez, Guerrero analyzing geomorphological, hydrothermal and edaphic maps based on GIS platforms. Six map sheets at a scale of 1:50 000 (INEGI, 2009) were employed so as to cover the entire area of study. On these maps the altitude, inclination, climate (temperature, rainfall) and soil types that were compatible with the agronomic requirements of Coffea Arabica were identified and marked out. Rainfall, temperature and soil type data were obtained from maps at a scale of 1:250 000 (INEGI, 2009) transformed from vector to raster formats so as to facilitate automated processing. For the morphometric evaluation of the relief, a digital elevation model was built with measurements at each 20 m so as to obtain an hypsometric gradient of 100 m and the classification of inclination into four classes: 0.1° to 18° (32%), 18.1° to 25° (33-47%), 25.1° to 40° (48-84%), and over 40° (&gt; 84%). Central to the agro-ecological zoning of coffee is the concept of agro-ecological potential, as the set of quantitative and qualitative requirements on the natural environment conducive to the proper development of the coffee plant. The relationships between the different variables and the determination of their potentials, as well as the physical-geographical zoning of Coffea Arabica , depended on the reclassification of selected variables and their spatial analysis based on GIS using the software ILWIS 3.31 with a view to obtaining an integrated natural potential model. Agro-ecological areas with optimal, medium, low and very low potentials for the production of this variety of coffee were defined. Optimal areas are located at moderate-to-weak mountain slopes (1.1° to 18°) with Acrisols (hierarchical key Ah+Bh+Hh/2) in semi-warm climates (18 ° to 22 °C) with a rainfall regime between 1 500 and 2,000 mm and at an altitude between 1,100 and 1 500 m. They extend over an area of 7 163.47 ha. Medium-potential areas cover 28 143.75 ha, low-potential areas 62 130.65 ha, and very-low potential areas 58 411.38 ha. This agro-ecological zoning of Coffea arabica is a valuable technical instrument based on national and international experiences and information on the natural conditions prevalent in the municipality of Atoyac de Alvarez. The updating of a database on geomorphological, climatic and soil conditions will help to devise strategies for the achievement of higher crop yields. This approach and methodology can be implemented in any geographical setting with the necessary map scales adjustments and evaluation of the local agro-ecological features. It has the potential to contribute to government and business initiatives alike for the planning and management of coffee areas of their promotion. <![CDATA[Determinantes sociales de la viabilidad del turismo alternativo en Atlautla, una comunidad rural del Centro de México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200119&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Con frecuencia las propuestas para el desarrollo local son abordadas sin un diagnóstico previo que permita conocer su viabilidad desde el punto de vista social. La investigación está enfocada a evaluar la viabilidad social del turismo alternativo en una localidad con un adecuado potencial natural-cultural para este tipo de actividad, como lo es el municipio de Atlautla, en la vertiente occidental del volcán Popocatépetl. Se consideraron tres factores determinantes: la percepción local del atractivo turístico, la disposición e interés de participar y el nivel de organización de la comunidad. La información se obtuvo mediante encuestas aleatorias y entrevistas con informantes clave; paralelamente se realizó el inventario y valoración de los atractivos turísticos de la comunidad. Los resultados obtenidos dejan ver que los habitantes tienen un conocimiento claro del atractivo turístico de su territorio y suficiente interés y disposición en participar; sin embargo, su capacidad organizativa no es óptima y está limitada principalmente por diferencias y conflictos internos, mostrando una inconsistencia entre el alto potencial turístico de la comunidad y sus posibilidades de orden social actuales.<hr/>Abstract: Proposals for local economic development are frequently addressed without having a previous diagnosis on social feasibility, which in many cases leads to excessive time, effort and resources invested in project development, or to the failure of these projects in the early years of operation. This is a recurring issue in rural communities of several countries where, given the urgency to address short-term needs, resources are used without proper planning, consensus or optimal social participation of the local population, all of which translates into resource-use models characterized by a low sustainability. Given this issue and considering that alternative tourism may be a good opportunity for local development without compromising the principles of sustainable development, this study assessed the social feasibility of alternative tourism in a small rural town with an adequate natural and cultural tourism potential. The project was conducted in the municipality of Atlautla, located in the Popocatepetl volcano's western slope in central Mexico. The study area corresponds to a temperate mountain ecosystem that, due to its ecological potential and complex biological and anthropic interrelations, displays an interesting landscape mosaic, which sets the grounds for a large variety of tourist attractions. The study considered that the social feasibility of tourism depends on three major factors: the local population's perception on tourist potential, the willingness and interest to participate in tourism activities and projects, and the organization and collaboration level within the community. First, 29 tourist attractions were identified and classified based on the diversity of landscape across the study area, through visits scheduled on the basis of the availability of key informants and their recommendations. These attractions were mapped and classified according to the typology of the Inter-American Tourism Training Center (CICATUR) of the Organization of American States (OAS). Tourist attractions were inventoried by applying an original method based on the use of indicators with a format that includes three basic landscape components (biotic, geomorphological and cultural) and three assessment criteria (landscape, environmental and educational-academic). The social feasibility of tourism regarding the 29 attractions identified and field-assessed was undertaken by conducting random surveys and interviews that involved different social parties. Surveys were designed based on 17 indicators that address the three dimensions mentioned for social feasibility. For their part, interviews were designed and conducted with key community informants (political and religious leaders, and representatives of several government levels). The results obtained revealed that local inhabitants have a fairly clear perception of the territory's tourist potential, especially as regards the mountains, and addressing leisure and relaxation objectives. With regard to the community's opinion on visitors, a positive finding was that most of them acknowledged that the presence of tourists is necessary and expressed appreciation for the visitors. The general view was that the economic benefits from their current activities are moderate or low, and that the local development of tourism could yield greater benefits. However, despite the certainty about the potential benefits associated with tourism and the interest expressed to participate in a wide variety of activities, the specific willingness and the effort that would hypothetically be dedicated to this respect were not as high as could be expected. This may be due to the community's suboptimal organization capacity. The union and collaboration between local inhabitants were rated by most respondents as regular or poor, acknowledging differences and internal conflicts. Furthermore, the existence of individual and group leaders was also mentioned, whose work in the community is perceived as regular. These limitations contribute to the apparent inconsistency between the community's high tourism potential and its current social possibilities. <![CDATA[<strong>La gestión territorial del patrimonio industrial en Castilla y León (España): fábricas y paisajes</strong>]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200136&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Este artículo analiza las estrategias de intervención más destacadas desde el último tercio del siglo XX en el patrimonio industrial español y de manera particular en una de sus regiones, Castilla y León. Tras una reflexión sobre los principales agentes que han propiciado la construcción social del concepto de patrimonio industrial, se hace una síntesis crítica de las intervenciones más frecuentes en España, caracterizadas por las limitaciones de la legislación protectora, así como por una extrema tolerancia urbanístico-legal, para proponer finalmente una clasificación de las mismas. La discusión se centra, a continuación, en el análisis empírico de tres casos singulares que afectan a sectores protagonistas de la industrialización histórica en el ámbito regional de estudio: el patrimonio minero-siderúrgico en zonas de montaña (Sabero-León) y las fábricas de harina (Valladolid) y de azúcar (León capital) localizadas en áreas urbanas. Desde el punto de vista de la gestión los resultados ponen de manifiesto el carácter tardío e incompleto de las intervenciones en el patrimonio industrial, la subordinación de las acciones de puesta en valor a las estrategias urbanísticas en las ciudades, y el peso de las políticas de desarrollo local en la recuperación y uso de la herencia industrial en los contextos rurales. En todos los casos, el patrimonio industrial se perfila como un recurso de notable potencial, aunque su gestión pueda ser imperfecta y ofrecer luces y sombras.<hr/>Abstract: Concern for industrial heritage in Spain is a relatively recent phenomenon. Traditionally, said assets, especially those set in urban environments (isolated buildings, industrial units or full industrial landscapes) faced three main threats. First of all, a fragile social memory associated the factory with often negative vital experiences, such as manual labour, pollution, industrial accidents and death; in other words, the possibility of a resource being recognised for its cultural value depends not only on its objective qualities but also on its social acceptance; urban industrial landscape and architecture have always been viewed as an obstacle to be removed rather than a heritage to be kept (Ortega, 1998). Secondly, the basically utilitarian criterion that characterises this type of architecture hampers the conservation and reuse of industrial architectural heritage because, in contrast to other richer heritages more closely associated with the dominant culture in Western tradition, the factory building has always occupied a marginal place. Finally, industrial architectural heritage faces a major contradiction: although the factory building has hardly any value in itself and its conversion for other uses is particularly costly, the land it stands on is particularly valuable and inversely proportional to the degree of abandonment and the protective commitments it involves. Fortunately, over the last third of the 19th century, some of these threats were overcome and some buildings, including undemolished but abandoned industrial sites, were considered elements of cultural heritage and resources used for urban economy reactivation policies and local development. This renewed interest in industrial heritage has led to the study of Sabero, a region of strong mining-industrial tradition in the province of León, and the two cases analysed in the cities of León and Valladolid (sugar factories and flour mills). However, in both cases the partial nature of the morphological recovery, the radical loss of the original function and the decontextualisation of industrial ruins as a result of the complete renovation of the "environments" detract from the ultimate goal of preserving the factory past of said two cities. Thus, this article is a theoretical reflection on a number of interventions in industrial heritage and strategies for recovery and use, viewed from a geographic perspective. It focuses interest not only on the building but also on territorial variants of the treatment given to the factory (as building), i.e. demolition, partial refurbishment, testimony, completeness, etc., and the surrounding countryside. It is based on the assumption that the presence of an industry in an area of low-level industrialisation, such as the one studied here, has completed a life cycle in which it has changed from vital resource to abandonment and consideration as an obstacle for territorial development (especially urban development) and, finally, to a resource that generates positive economic (tourism) or urban externalities (promoting the residential refurbishment of the area). All these variants of the cycle, as case studies, have already been analysed by the authors in previous research projects; however, there was a need for general theoretical reflection, which is what this article offers. The three examples selected are real-life paradigms of the industrial life cycle and the buildings in which it has developed in Castilla y León (Spain) over several generations. The findings highlight that not only preserved industrial urban areas remains with equity, also the mining areas or small industrial valleys are worthy of being retrieved and applied to new uses or projects that rescued from ruin and revalue remains. Spain have numerous in recovery actions and value of these assets, transformed into tourist resources that contribute to local development culturally, economically and socially. Slowly reorienting the focus on treatment is also observed: we move from a concentration on an isolated element or an object-monument to comprehensive interventions in heritage landscapes that link coherently scattered industrial contractors to create itineraries that explain the industrialization of the territory. <![CDATA[Pensamiento geográfico en América Latina: retrospectiva y balances generales]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200155&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Experiencias de investigación geográfica en el estudio de la pesca comercial ribereña en las áreas naturales protegidas de Baja California Sur (México)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200176&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Pfeifer, K. y P. Niki (Eds.: 2013), Forces of nature and cultural responses, springer science, Dordrecht, 213 p., ISBN 978-94-007-4999-3, doi: 10.1007/978-94-007-5000-5]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200186&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Martínez de Pisón, E. (2014), La Tierra de Jules Verne.Geografía y aventura, Fórcola Ediciones, Madrid, 397 p., ISBN 978-84-15174-89-9]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200189&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Mezcua López, A. J. (2014), La experiencia del paisaje en China. Shanshui o cultura del paisaje en la dinastía Song, Abada Editores, Madrid, 338 p., ISBN 978-841-52-8986-9]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200191&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Del Castillo, Ch. y D. Miranda (2015), Guía Goeritz, Arquine, Facultad de Arquitectura de la Universidad del Estado de Morelos, Secretaría de Cultura de Morelos, México, 191 p., ISBN 978-607-7784-93-7]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200195&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Larrucea Garritz, A. (2016), País y Paisaje. Dos invenciones del siglo XIX mexicano, UNAM, Facultad de Arquitectura, México, 223 p., ISBN 978-607-02-7650-7]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200198&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Favila Vázquez, M. (2016), Veredas de mar y río: navegación prehispánica y colonial en los Tuxtlas, Veracruz, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México-Coordinación de Estudios de Posgrado, México, 288 p., ISBN 978-607-02-7639-2]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200202&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Exposición fotográfica: "Pescar en el Vizcaíno. Imágenes desde la geografía de un paisaje mexicano", Instituto de Geografía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Cd. Mx., 15 de febrero-4 de marzo 2016]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200205&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Mesa Redonda: "Sujetos étnicos y procesos migratorios y socio-territoriales en la frontera México-Estados Unidos", Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, 14 de abril de 2016]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200209&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background <![CDATA[Primer Seminario Internacional: "Representaciones cartográficas de ciudades en la investigación", Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Azcapotzalco y Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México Centro Histórico, Cd. Mx., 2-4 mayo 2016]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000200212&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen: Mediante un estudio de la historiografía contemporánea y a partir de una revisión estructurada de revistas especializadas y de centros de investigación y docencia, se propone analizar sintéticamente el pensamiento geográfico en América Latina, reconociendo temas transnacionales vinculados a procesos y patrones globales. Subrayamos la importancia de los análisis retrospectivos como un fundamento para la comprensión de escenarios de plausibilidad y para cuestionarnos rigurosamente el qué es y para qué una geografía latinoamericana. Primero, reconocemos el panorama actual de (re)valoración de la geografía como una ciencia social. Posteriormente exponemos el marco disciplinario, teniendo como punto de inflexión la década de los noventa cuando una serie de acontecimientos a escala continental establecieron cambios geográficos y sociales que, al mismo tiempo, generaron posturas reflexivas respecto al quehacer en ciencias sociales. Analizamos la influencia de las grandes tradiciones que han influido en el continente. Finalmente se expone el panorama actual en el ámbito de la disciplina.<hr/>Abstract: In this paper we report results of a thorough historiographic review of published geographic research and on the activity of geography departments and research centers in Latin America. The main focus was on the recognition of transnational subjects and global processes and patterns. We argue that this type of retrospective analyses allows the understanding of the what and the what for of Latin America (LAG) Geography. First, we describe the current situation of LAG as a social science. Second, we explain the nature of LA social processes that, in the 90s, triggered geographic change and subsequent theoretical reflection on this change in LAG and in other related social sciences. To this end, we describe how the major traditions in geographic research have influenced LAG thinking. To conclude, we suggest the major achievements and tasks that we think characterize the current situation of LAG. The Mexican philosopher Leopoldo Zea (1986) postulated that Latin American integration would occur through educational systems rather than regional economic projects. As far as Geography is concerned, this postulate would suggest that to achieve integration, the discipline should first become stronger at the national level, without rejecting external influences, and by focusing on subjects embedded in large scope research agendas, or in LA societal concerns. In addition, the links between LA geographic institutions should also become stronger, and emerging common appraisals should be presented in international scientific meetings. These shared perspectives should be the result of common multinational research and educational projects, including postgraduate mobility programs. The participation in thematic networks, either geographic ones, or closely related but where a geographic perspective is present, would be helpful to create common disciplinary visions. Since the end of the 90s and the beginning of 2000s the number of papers and books on LAG, on both, theory and practice as shown in this paper, has increased significantly. However, the impact of this contribution is not strong, considering the number of citations to these works and especially comparing with the production in some European countries or the U.S. LA geographers seem to be more concerned with the results of applied research than with a more theoretical geographical insight. Scientific empirisim and the promotion of a LAG rooted in the practical experience of scholars is a heavy burdden difficult to overcome. A strong LAG would represent a step forward for national efforts: it may allow the exchange of conceptual view-points and methodologies among persons who also share a common historic and cultural background. From an applied perspective the role of LAG, as is the case of other social scientists, should focus on public-policy decision making, particularly on territorial and environmental issues, especially at the local and multi-scale levels. The scope must be to mitigate inequality, violence and environmental degradation, and to propose different territorial visions. To this end, interdisciplinarity or disciplinary hybridization is advisable, provided the effort is based on a strong disciplinary background