Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Investigaciones geográficas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=0188-461120160003&lang=en vol. num. 91 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Natural Landscapes and Optimal Resource Use at the Rio Grande Drainage Basin, Oaxaca, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: El objetivo central de la evaluación de los paisajes físico-geográficos para optimizar su uso demanda el análisis de su aptitud natural o vocación con vistas a proponer patrones de ocupación adecuados a sus condiciones intrínsecas. Esta evaluación constituye una herramienta metodológica clave a partir de la cual es posible seleccionar formas óptimas de uso para cada unidad de paisaje, como unidad de análisis espacial. En el estado de Oaxaca son escasos los estudios científicos integrales, sobre todo aquellos enfocados a la evaluación de la vocación natural de sus unidades de síntesis natural -los paisajes físico-geográficos-. En este sentido se aborda la aptitud natural en la cuenca del río Grande, mediante la evaluación de los atributos naturales de sus paisajes, tomando algunos criterios de la metodología de la evaluación de tierras (FAO, 1976, 1993), enfocados a los requerimientos para las actividades agrícola, pecuaria, forestal, de conservación y sus combinaciones. El área con las mejores condiciones para la práctica de actividades agropecuarias equivale al 15.6% de la cuenca (152 km2); para la actividad pecuaria se identificó un 12.5% (122 km2); la aptitud óptima para la conservación con actividades agropecuarias ocupa 6.5% (64 km2); la actividad mixta de conservación-pecuaria abarca 11% (108 km2); la actividad de conservación-forestal posee 11.7% (114 km2) y la actividad de conservación alcanza 17.1% (167 km2). Finalmente, 25.6% de la cuenca (250 km2) posee condiciones para el desarrollo agropecuario, de conservación-pecuario y de conservación, pero no clasifican con una aptitud óptima.<hr/>Abstract: Environmental conservation depends largely on the appropriate management and rational use of natural resources. The assessment of natural landscapes and their suitability for human occupation is key to ensure optimal resource use. The criteria for establishing land-use potentials vary according to the type of activity concerned. For example, in determining the most suitable areas for growing grapes in Cuyo, Argentina, Valpreda (2005) focused on topography, soil quality and water availability, whereas in their study on the oil-producing region of northern Chiapas, Mexico, Bollo et al. (2010) applied markedly different criteria. Soil components and their variability were key to the multi-purpose study of Ovalles and Núñez (1994), while morphometric criteria have been used by Bocco et al. (2010) on farming; for cattle raising, Travieso-Bello et al. (2013) added soil quality and moisture, similar to Rodríguez-Gallego, et al. (2012). In the state of Oaxaca, scientific studies on the feasibility of human activity in different natural landscapes are yet to be undertaken. This study assesses the natural landscapes and resources of the Río Grande drainage basin aimed at establishing optimal locations for agriculture, livestock farming, forestry, wildlife conservation and their combinations. Following the FAO studies (1976, 1993), geomorphological and morphoclimatic systems have been considered as landscape units for analysis. The methodology was adapted from the following studies: The Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (Ouyang, 2002); an estimate of soil pH based on Landsat imagery (López-Granados et al., 2005); a calculation of potential livestock carrying capacity (LCC) (Semarnat, 2003; Vergara and Ortiz-Espinoza, 2010); and a land use and vegetation cover analysis for forestry suitability and the potential distribution of two cat species (Lynx rufus and Panthera onca) (Chávez y Ceballos, 2006; Medellín-Legorreta and Bárcenas, 2009; Semarnat 2010; Semarnat-Conanp, 2010). Our analysis shows that 15.6% of the total area (152 km2) has optimal conditions for agriculture; 12.5% (122 km2) for livestock farming; 6.5% (64 km2) for conservational agricultural activities; 11% (108 km2) for conservational livestock production; 11.7% (114 km2) for conservational forestry activities; and 167 km2 (17.1%) for conservation alone. Finally, 25.6% of the territory (250 km2) is suitable (but not optimal) for agriculture, conservational livestock activities and conservation. This methodology based on physical-geographical landscapes allows to identify vocational land-use patterns across the Río Grande drainage basin as a means to optimize the management of the various economic activities. The identification and evaluation of productive and conservation potentials in the various geomorphologic and morphoclimatic systems of the river basin were governed by two basic geographic principles: spatial analysis of physical and geographic constraints with a holistic approach, and the mapping of natural resources as inputs for territorial analysis and the development of optimal management strategies. Both principles allowed the establishment of sectorial planning under the magnifying glass of natural aptitude and optimum land use. The same exercise may be carried out to benefit other Oaxacan regions, as well as other regional and national projects. <![CDATA[Quantitative analysis of the relief in watersheds of the “El Ávila” massif northern hillside (Vargas State, Venezuela) and its hydrogeomorphological meaning]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300025&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Las características morfológicas del relieve y la cuantificación morfométrica de sus magnitudes son elementos esenciales para la interpretación de la influencia de este en la dinámica hidrogeomorfológica de cuencas de drenaje en ambientes montañosos. Por ello, es propósito fundamental de esta investigación analizar cuantitativamente los rasgos del relieve en cuencas de la vertiente norte del macizo “El Ávila” (estado Vargas, Venezuela) y su incidencia en el comportamiento hidrogeomorfológico de ellas. La metodología consistió en la caracterización geomorfológica del área; mediciones y cálculos de parámetros morfométricos del relieve; análisis estadístico descriptivo de estos parámetros; análisis de correlación lineal entre ellos y análisis de sus componentes principales. Las cuencas estudiadas categorizan como microcuencas de carácter exorreico, en las que se distinguen un área de recepción, un canal de desagüe principal y abanicos aluviales. Los ríos y quebradas principales de los sistemas son de cortos recorridos, con fuertes cambios en sus gradientes topográficos. En general, se observan muy bajas correlaciones entre los parámetros morfométricos del relieve. Los parámetros morfométricos con mayor peso sobre la dinámica hidrogeomorfológica de las cuencas están representados por: pendiente media del relieve, altitud máxima, relieve máximo, concavidad del perfil longitudinal de la corriente principal y altitud de la naciente.<hr/>Abstract: The morphological features of the relief and its quantitative morphometric quantification are essential elements in interpreting its influence on the hydrogeomorphological dynamics of watersheds in mountainous environments. This is particularly important when studying small spatial units (micro watersheds) and torrential regimes, as this influences the sudden and aggressive hydrological responses of these systems and the likelihood of activation of mass removal processes. In the study region (Vargas State, Venezuela) the most important debris flow recorded in Venezuela's history occurred on December 14, 15 and 16, 1999, as a consequence of extremely heavy rainfall in those dates associated with a very particular weather. For the above reasons, this research conducted a quantitative analysis of the relief features in watersheds of “El Ávila” massive northern hillside and their impact on the local hydrogeomorphological dynamics, aimed at identifying the main attributes influencing these dynamics. The study area is located in the northern-central region of Venezuela, in the central part of Vargas state, delimited by 10°32’25”-10°37’35”N and 66°40’08”- 66°59’12”W, and comprises thirteen micro watersheds of mountainous environment. The methodology consisted of (a) the geomorphological characterization of the area, from the review and interpretation of digitized base maps at scales 1:5 000 and 1:25 000, the digital elevation model (DEM), aerial photographs at scale 1:5 000, orthophotomaps at scale 1:25 000, satellite images, Google Earth and Google Maps images, and geomorphological maps (landforms and geomorphological processes) at scale 1:25 000; (b) measurements and calculations of basic morphometric parameters of watershed relief on digital mapping using the ArcGIS 9.2 and their Spatial Analysis and ArcHydro modules, and the mathematical equations that define the other parameters using MS Excel; (c) descriptive statistical analysis (DSA) of morphometric parameters in Excel spreadsheets, based on the following statistics: maximum value, minimum value, mean, mode, median, variance, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, coefficient of variation, first quartile, second quartile and third quartile; (d) linear correlation analysis (LCA) between morphometric parameters, based on the application and estimation of the Pearson product-moment correlation using the MS Excel XLSTAT add-on software; and (e) principal component analysis (PCA) of morphometric parameters based on correlations, run with SPSS Statistics v. 17.0. The results show that the watersheds in the study area are conceived as exorheic hydrogeomorphological systems. Three relief units characteristic of these mountain environments systems were distinguished: catchment area, main drain channel and cone or alluvial fan, each with its own morphological features (landforms) and distinctive geomorphological processes. Landforms were grouped into two major groups: on the one hand, those that result from the depositional activity of the main creeks and rivers, prevailing in valleys of the main drain channels and in foothills (alluvial fans); on the other, those that have been shaped by the erosive action associated with drainage networks, being observed mainly on hillsides. Creeks and rivers are waterways running along very short distances from headwaters to outputs on the mountain front, exhibiting pronounced changes in slope, usually steep. These are typical of torrential systems in mountainous environments with abrupt relief, favoring sudden hydrological responses. As regards the morphometric parameters of watershed relief and drainage networks, these were defined as topographically very rugged areas with steep slopes and steep altitudinal slopes. These morphometric parameters are typically represented by the slopes along the longitudinal profiles of the main creeks and rivers, and by the pronounced mountainous relief (massivity coefficient, orographic coefficient and Melton's ruggedness number). The LCA between morphometric parameters of relief revealed a few cases with good-to-high correlation, mainly due to the mathematical and geometric relationships between them. The PCA allowed reducing the number of morphometric parameters of relief, defining as new variables to the four created components. The main relief components in the first PCA axis were mean slope, maximum altitude, maximum relief, mainstream longitudinal profile concavity and headwater altitude, identified as those that exert the greatest influence on the hydrogeomorphological dynamics of the watersheds studied. <![CDATA[Geographic Information Systems and geomorphological mapping applied to landslide inventory and susceptibility mapping in El Estado river, Pico de Orizaba, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300043&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Con el propósito de fortalecer el conocimiento y la prevención de los desastres por deslizamientos en este trabajo se desarrolla una metodología que integra la cartografía geomorfológica con la elaboración de mapas de susceptibilidad a deslizamientos usando los sistemas de información geográfica (SIG) y el método de regresión logística múltiple (RLM). En México se han realizado algunos trabajos aislados con los SIG para evaluar la estabilidad de laderas. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se ha desarrollado ningún método práctico y estandarizado que integre los mapas geomorfológicos con los inventarios de deslizamientos utilizando los SIG. Este artículo muestra el análisis llevado a cabo para elaborar un inventario de deslizamientos multitemporal junto con la técnica de análisis y cartografía morfométrica de la cuenca del río El Estado. La cuenca del río El Estado, seleccionada como área de estudio, se localiza en la ladera sudoeste del volcán Citlaltepetl o Pico de Orizaba. Los factores geológicos y geomorfológicos en combinación con la alta precipitación estacional, el alto grado de intemperismo y las laderas escarpadas predisponen sus superficies a deslizamientos. Para evaluar la susceptibilidad por deslizamientos de tierras se elaboró un mapa de inventario de deslizamientos usando fotografías aéreas, a continuación se elaboró la cartografía geomorfométrica (altimétrico, pendientes y geomorfográfico) y se realizó trabajo de campo. Con esta información se modeló la susceptibilidad por deslizamientos usando regresión logística múltiple (RLM) dentro de la plataforma de un SIG y se obtuvo el mapa de susceptibilidad por deslizamientos.<hr/>Abstract: With the aim of raising awareness on the prevention of landslide disasters, this work develops a methodology that incorporates geomorphological mapping into the mapping of landslide susceptibility using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Multiple Logistic Regression (MLR). In Mexico, some studies have evaluated the stability of hillsides using GIS. However, these studies set a general framework and guidance (that includes basic concepts and explanations of landslide classification, triggering mechanisms, criteria, considerations, and analysis for landslide hazard reconnaissance, etc.) for preparing a landslide atlas at state and city levels. So far, these have not developed a practical and standardized approach incorporating geomorphological maps into the landslide inventory using GIS. This paper describes the analysis conducted to develop an analytical technique and morphometric analysis for a multi-temporal landslide inventory. Three data management levels are used to create GIS thematic layers. For the first level, analogue topographic, geological, land-use, and climate paper are converted to raster format, georeferenced, and incorporated as GIS thematic layers. For the second level, five layers are derived from topographic elevation data: slope angles, slope curvature, contributing area, flow direction, and saturation. For the third level, thematic maps are derived from the previous two levels of data: a hypsometric map (heuristically classified to highlight altimetric levels), a reclassified slope map (allowing to highlight differences in relief), and a morphographic map (derived from a heuristic reclassification of the slope map to highlight volcanic landforms). The theoretical aspects of geomorphological mapping contribute to set the conceptual basis to support landslide mapping. The GIS thematic layers provide context and establish an overall characterization of landslide processes within the watershed. Through the retrieval and on-off switching of layers in the GIS system, a base map is created to assist in the digitizing of landslides and the modeling of susceptibility. A landslide inventory is created from aerial photographs, field investigations, and all the above GIS thematic layers. El Estado river watershed on the southwestern flank of Pico de Orizaba volcano has been selected as study area. The watershed is located in the southwestern slope of Citlaltepetl or Pico de Orizaba volcano. Geological (the stream channel of El Estado river erodes Tertiary and Quaternary lavas, disjointed volcanoclastic materials such as pyroclastic flows, fall deposits, lahars deposits, and alluvium) and geomorphological factors (steep slopes, energy relief, and vertical erosion) in combination with high seasonal rainfall (annual rainfall averages 1000-1100 mm/yr at &gt; 4000 m a.s.l. and 927 mm/yr at &lt;1500 m a.s.l.), and the high degree of weathering, make the study area susceptible to landslides. To assess landslide susceptibility, a landslide inventory map and geomorphometric cartography (altimetry, slope and geomorphography) were reviewed, and field work was conducted. In the study area, more than one hundred landslides were mapped. Shallow landslides (including debris slides and debris flows) are the predominant type. Shallow landslides predominate on hills capped with ash and pyroclastic deposits. The second major landslide process includes rock falls (which occur where the stream erodes lava flows and lahars) and deep-seated landslides (which occur in ash and pyroclastic deposits where lava flows act as a slip plane). In parallel, the spatial geodatabase of landslides was constructed from standardized GIS datasets. Pertinent attributes are recorded on a geo-dataset. These include 1) mass wasting process, 2) level of certainty of the observation, 3) photo identification date, 4) landslide size, 5) landslide activity, 6) landslide parts (head, evacuation zone, deposit), 7) slope shape, 8) field slope gradient, 9) map gradient measured from the 10 m digital elevation model (DEM), 10) landslide delivery, 11) land use, 12) elevation at which the landslide started, 13) aerial photograph identification number, 14) landslide area, and 15) researcher comments. Each attribute is standardized by the geo-dataset domains in the GIS system. With this information the landslide susceptibility is modeled using MLR within a GIS platform. MLR is used to examine the relation between land sliding and several independent variables (elevation, slope, contributing area, land use, geology, and terrain curvature) to create the susceptibility map. With six independent variables, the multiple logistic model susceptibility map tends to overpredict landslides at a 10 m pixel resolution. However, the model is statistically valid and able to predict 79.81% of the existing landslides. The implementation of a landslide inventory and susceptibility mapping techniques demonstrate the feasibility of the method for use in other volcanic areas of Mexico. <![CDATA[Coastal Morphodynamics at Playa Bailén, Southwestern Cuba, 2003-2013]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300056&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: En la actualidad, el análisis de los cambios morfodinámicos de las costas constituye una de las direcciones ambientales e ingenieriles de mayor significado para su planeación y su desarrollo sostenible, así como para la preservación y la protección de sus recursos naturales. Se presentan las tendencias morfodinámicas de la playa Bailén, localizada en la costa suroccidental de Cuba, entre los años 2003 y 2013. Se aplicaron mediciones topográficas del perfil transversal de playa y de la posición de la línea de costa en 15 estaciones de observación, a lo largo de 2 140 m de playa, en los años 2007, 2010 y 2013, comparadas con la posición del año 2003. Los volúmenes de arena acrecionada o erosionada en el período 2003-2007 fueron estimados después de los impactos del huracán Iván del año 2004. Finalmente, se realizaron ensayos granulométricos para establecer las tendencias espacio-temporales en el comportamiento del diámetro promedio de los granos de arena. Para el sector norte de la playa, la tasa máxima de retroceso fue de -2.0 m/año y los análisis granulométricos de las arenas demostraron enriquecimiento en su fracción gruesa. Ambos procesos reflejan la influencia directa de la inadecuada ubicación de las construcciones civiles en la porción frontal de las dunas y en la berma. Por otra parte, en el sector sur el valor máximo de acreción fue de +8.0 m/año y el promedio alcanzó +2.3 m/año. Durante los diez años analizados se observa un bajo nivel de resiliencia en la recuperación de la playa.<hr/>Abstract: Due to their geological nature, beaches are susceptible to changes over a relatively short period of time. Composed mainly of recently formed rocks, the scarcely consolidated structure of the substrate makes beaches vulnerable to the action of waves, tides, currents, wind, changes in sea level and human activity. Beach dynamics is marked by different degrees of fragility. In tropical regions, especially in the Caribbean, extreme hydro-meteorological phenomena such as hurricanes and cold fronts associated with extra-tropical storms significantly accelerate the erosion and accretion processes along the coast. The geographical location of the Cuban archipelago, at the margins of the Tropic of Cancer (its northernmost latitude is 27°17’ N), makes it susceptible to the combined action of hurricanes (between June and November) and cold fronts (between November and March). This very fact makes the study of coastal morphodynamic changes a subject of the utmost importance in sustainable-development projects and environmental planning, including the preservation of coastal natural resources. In Cuba, several authors have reported a coastal retreat of 1 to 3 m per year in western beaches, as well as an average loss of sand of about 50 000 m3 per year in the famous Varadero beach. The latter case is mainly due to the extraction of sand from the underwater platform between 1968 and 1978 for construction purposes. This paper addresses the morphodynamic processes taking place at Bailén beach, on the southwestern Cuban coast, as observed during a 10-year period, from 2003 to 2013. Transversal topographic measurements were taken at the beachfront and coastline at 15 observation stations along 2 140 m of beach in 2007, 2010 and 2013. These measurements were then compared to the data available for 2003. Estimated volumes of accreted and eroded sand for the period 2003-2007 indicate remarkable changes in beach morphology and evidence the vulnerability of coastal systems to extreme events, such as those unleashed by hurricane Ivan in 2004. The most important morphological changes observed included an increase of 0.20 to 0.50 m in dune height in some cases, and a decrease in others in the order of 0.15 to 0.40 m. Finally, granulometric tests were conducted to establish the spatial and temporal variations in the diameter of sand grains. To the north side of the beach, the maximum recession rate was 2.0 m per year, and sand grains were larger. Both measurements are indicative of the impact of buildings constructed at the front side of dunes and the beach berm on beach morphology. In the southern sector, on the other hand, the maximum accretion reached 8.0 m per year, whereas the average value was 2.3 m per year. During the 10 years of analysis, beach recovery has been characterized by a low resilience to the impact of hurricanes and other meteorological events. There is a clear spatial correlation between the inadequate location of buildings less than 30 meters from the shore on dunes and berms, where beach dynamics is most intense, and the development of intensive erosive processes, as observed in the northern sector of Bailén beach. The slow recovery of the initial coastline position translates into a steady increase in the average diameter of sediments. The low level of resilience in these beach stretches becomes even more evident when hydro-meteorological events occur. For beach recovery projects through local sand repositioning to be successful, the beachfront must be closely monitored, recording measurements of both sediment dynamics and the effects of wind and water on a transversal profile. Also, to ensure an effective regeneration of this natural resource, an average volume of sand per linear meter of beach must be established. Finally, the demolition of old buildings located at the berm and the front side of dunes, and the prohibition of further construction in these sites, should contribute to restore the morphodynamic balance of this beach and increase the quality of tourism services. <![CDATA[Coastal vulnerability index for the Tabasco State coast, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300070&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: El incremento del nivel del mar es un evento extremo que impactará gravemente las zonas costeras bajas, como es el caso de Tabasco. A nivel nacional la costa tabasqueña es de los sitios más vulnerables ante tal evento, por lo que es necesario estimar localmente el grado de su vulnerabilidad. Por ello, en este estudio se estimó esa vulnerabilidad mediante la aplicación de la metodología del Indice de Vulnerabilidad Costera utilizando Sistemas de Información Geográfica. Este modelo se ajustó a las condiciones locales de la costa tabasqueña, dado que los datos que exigen las variables que integran la metodología (olas, mareas, nivel del mar, pendiente costera, tasas de erosión y geomorfología) estaban disponibles para el área de estudio, y así contar con la oportunidad de encontrar datos locales del grado de vulnerabilidad de la costa. De acuerdo con los resultados encontrados, tras realizar un álgebra de mapas, los sectores con mayor vulnerabilidad se encuentran justamente frente a los sistemas lagunares costeros más importantes del estado, Carmen-Pajonal Machona y Mecoacán, este último con un mayor grado de vulnerabilidad. Es importante destacar que dicha área se encuentra dentro de la zona de influencia del puerto de Dos Bocas, donde la actividad antropogénica es muy notable. Los datos encontrados serán útiles para la toma de decisiones para el manejo del espacio costero de Tabasco.<hr/>Abstract: Sea level rise is one of the most serious events that will impact low-lying lands, as is the case of most of Tabasco State. Historically, the State of Tabasco has been repeatedly impacted by extreme floods, the most recent one occurring in 2007. However, recent studies have shown that coastal erosion is the effect that most directly has impacted the Tabasco's coastline, as this has even modified soil strata; this is also related to extreme hydrometeorological events associated with environmental changes and changes in the salinity gradient off the coast. In such a situation, future changes in the coastline are almost certain. Tabasco's coastline has been recognized as one of the most vulnerable zones in the country since Mexico's first national communication to the UNFCCC in 1997. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the vulnerability of this zone. The purpose of this study was to estimate the vulnerability of the Tabasco's coastline by applying the coastal vulnerability index method (IVM) using a geographic information system (GIS). This method has been successfully applied in several different places around the world including Canada, the United State, Spain and Indonesia. This model is suitable for the local conditions of Tabasco coast, as the input variables it requires (including waves, tides, sea level, coastal slope, erosion rates and geomorphology) are available for the study area, thus allowing the possibility of estimating the coast's vulnerability based on local data. Results from map algebra operations showed that the zones of very high or high vulnerability encompass a six-kilometer stretch around the Sánchez Magallanes community, near the del Carmen lagoon in the municipality of H. Cárdenas, Tabasco. This is due to the high-waves regime and other conditions associated to the coastal dune geomorphology as well as the unconsolidated fine sediments prevailing therein. Other high vulnerability zones are found just in front of the major lagoon system in the State of Tabasco, the Carmen-Pajonal-Machona and Mecoacan lagoons; being the last one the most vulnerable of all. It is worth pointing out that this zone is located within the influence zone of the Dos Bocas port where an intense anthropogenic activity occurs. It is also important to point out that this study is one of the first approaches to the estimation of coastal vulnerability in Mexico. The implementation and application of this model of coastal vulnerability evaluation are significant given the spatial scale of the study and that this is the first time that these variables have been collected for the state of Tabasco. Our results might inform decision-making processes on the proper management of the Tabasco coastline, thus benefiting the local communities. <![CDATA[Local deforestation patterns and driving forces in a tropical dry forest in two municipalities of southern Oaxaca, Mexico (1985-2006))]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300086&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: The tropical dry forest is an ecosystem that is undergoing rapid changes. Although global driving forces behind these changes have been addressed at a local scale, spatio-temporal dynamics are still largely unknown. The main objective of this study was to identify the causes governing the dynamics of changes in land use and land cover in the tropical dry forest in two municipalities in Southern México. Satellite imagery and air photographs were used in a GIS context to produce maps of land use and land cover for 1985, 1995 and 2006. A number of statistical methods (Markov chains, general lineal models and regression tree analysis) were applied to identify the proximate and the underlying causes of deforestation, agriculture being the most important one. When agriculture is mainly for self consumption, topographic factors determine its location. Increasing job opportunities in the tourism sector has resulted in the abandonment of agricultural land; consequently, the forest has recovered. Different studies have examined the dynamics of local deforestation and its driving forces in México; however, this study considered both spatial and temporal elements in order to identify the most important underlying driving forces of deforestation and its dynamics at local scale, and also compared two neighboring municipalities.<hr/>Resumen: La selva baja caducifolia es un ecosistema que está presentando grandes cambios. A pesar que a nivel global se han estudiado las fuerzas conductoras del cambio de uso de suelo, a escala local las dinámicas espacio-temporales son ampliamente desconocidas. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue identificar las fuerzas conductoras de los cambios de uso y coberturas del suelo en la selva baja caducifolia en dos municipios al Sur de México. Para alcanzar dicho objetivo fueron utilizadas imágenes satelitales y fotografías aéreas dentro de un SIG, para producir los mapas de uso y de coberturas del suelo para los años 1985, 1995 y 2006. Diferentes métodos estadísticos (cadenas de Markov, modelos lineales generalizados y análisis por regresión de árbol) fueron empleados para identificar las causas próximas y subyacentes de la deforestación, donde resalta la agricultura como la más importante de ellas. Las actividades agrícolas, principalmente la de autoconsumo están delimitadas espacialmente por las características topográficas del terreno. El incremento de las oportunidades de trabajo vinculadas con el sector turístico han resultado en el abandono de las actividades agropecuarias, favoreciendo al regeneración y recuperación del bosque. En México diferentes estudios han examinado las dinámicas locales de la deforestación y las fuerzas conductoras, sin embargo, este estudio considera tanto la escala espacial como la temporal fueron claves para identificar las causas subyacentes más importantes de la deforestación, la dinámicas a escala local y la comparación entre dos municipios vecinos. <![CDATA[Variations of reflectance values and vegetation indices as a function of topographic modeling parameters in the Parque Estadual do Turvo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo: Técnicas de sensoriamento remoto têm sido amplamente utilizadas em estudos florestais, por permitirem avaliar e monitorar importantes áreas florestais, como as do Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET). O PET é o maior remanescente de floresta subtropical decídua do sul do Brasil. Contudo, fatores externos como efeitos topográficos podem influenciar a resposta espectral dos alvos nos produtos de satélites. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a magnitude das variações na reflectância de superfície e nos índices de vegetação em função das características topográficas locais. A metodologia desenvolvida incluiu a aquisição de dados do sensor RapidEye e o modelo digital de elevação ASTER GDEM 2. O efeito da variação da geometria de iluminação foi avaliado a partir de duas cenas RapidEye: junho e outubro de 2012. Dados de orientação de vertentes, altimetria e relevo sombreado foram gerados a partir do ASTER GDEM 2, permitindo avaliar o efeito topográfico sobre a reflectância e os índices de vegetação Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) e Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI). Os resultados mostraram que as variaveis topográficas afetam a reflectâcia de todas as bandas RapidEye e os índices de vegetação, especialmente o EVI. Os efeitos topográficos foram mais pronunciados em junho (maior ângulo zenital solar - AZS) do que em outubro (menor AZS). O NDVI foi menos afetado pelas variações sazonais das condições de iluminação e da fenologia do que o EVI. Quanto a orientação, os maiores valores de reflectância e índices de vegetação foram encontrados na orientação norte e os menores na orientação sul.<hr/>Abstract: Remote sensing techniques have been widely used in forestry studies as they allow evaluation and monitoring of large forested areas. The Parque Estadual do Turvo (PET) (17 491 ha) is the largest remaining tract of well-preserved subtropical deciduous forest in Southern Brazil, it constitutes the northern-most portion of the Misiones forest of Argentina (10 000 km2). The area is of great environmental importance and is suitable for conducting remote sensing studies using high or even coarse-to-moderate spatial resolution data and related vegetation indices. Both, reflectance values and vegetation indices are affected by external factors that modify the spectral response of surface elements. Among the factors that can induce errors in image interpretation are topographic effects that add spectral variability to satellite products. In addition, previous studies in subtropical forests have shown that the geometry of data acquisition also affects significantly the estimates of vegetation parameters derived from images acquired at off-nadir viewing or by sensors with large field-of-view (FOV). This study aimed to evaluate the magnitude of variations in bidirectional reflectance values and in vegetation indices derived from those, as a function of local topography, using high spatial resolution data acquired by the RapidEye satellite constellation. The method included the use of a digital elevation model (DEM) from the Advanced Space-borne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer - Global Digital Elevation Map version 2 (ASTER GDEM v2) and two RapidEye scenes. From the DEM, topographical parameters including slope aspect (eight classes), elevation (nine classes with 120-m spacing interval) and shaded relief (shaded, intermediate and sunlit surfaces) were derived. These data provide information on areas with or without direct exposure to solar radiation, depending on topographic features. RapidEye data were acquired on June 28, 2012 and October 17, 2012, corresponding to dates when the forest shows low or high leaf area index (LAI), respectively. Both scenes were acquired with a view angle close to nadir. Solar elevation angles for the June and October images were 37.93° and 71.25°, respectively. The RapidEye data were corrected for atmospheric effects using the Fast Line-of-sight Atmospheric Analysis of Hypercubes (FLAASH®). The next step was to perform topographic modeling in order to extract slope, aspect and elevation data. From the topographic variables and the RapidEye metadata, shaded relief was calculated for both scenes. After segmenting the scenes based on the topographic variables, we evaluated the spectral reflectance and vegetation indices, as measured by RapidEye, as a function of topographic parameters. For this purpose, we randomly sampled 1000 pixels from each topographic class. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) were calculated from the RapidEye data. The samples were averaged and analyzed using graphics and descriptive statistics. Select transects were analyzed in more detail to evaluate the effects of local topographic parameters on the remote sensing products. In addition, we conducted forest surveys in 14 plots (20 x 50 m) to produce a floristic-structural characterization of the deciduous forest. The field inventories identified a total of 74 plant species (in 31 families) distributed in three strata and showed the presence of discontinuities within the forest. The results showed that, in addition to seasonal phenological variations, local illumination conditions caused by the relief in the PET contributed to explain the forest spectral response. The topographic variable that most importantly affected the PET spectral response, as measured by RapidEye, was slope aspect. Despite being affected by varying illumination conditions in the two dates, the reflectance and vegetation indices of the June image were most impacted by the shaded relief caused by the low solar elevation and large amount of shadows in the scene. The illumination effects were compounded by the seasonal leaf shedding in the deciduous forests, especially in the upper canopy layer. The winter time (June) scene showed more shaded relief and lower LAI values. In the October scene the shade fraction was substantially reduced and leaf shedding reduced the forest canopy anisotropy. A per band analysis showed that the red and near infrared bands were the ones with the highest dependence on aspect and shaded relief. Increases in elevation caused a positive change in near infrared reflectance and a lower reflectance in the visible bands. The NDVI showed lower dependence on topographical conditions than the EVI. The EVI showed higher sensitivity to illumination conditions, shade and seasonal LAI variations. We concluded that the analysis of remote sensing data (reflectance values or vegetation indices such as NDVI and EVI) should take into account local topographic effects. In general, the spectral anisotropy in the June scene was higher than in the October scene due the combined effect of deciduousness (leaf shedding), the lower solar elevation and larger amount of shadows. <![CDATA[Recent evoluation of private property in Brazil]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300124&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumo: O debate sobre a propriedade privada é um tema recorrente que ainda mobiliza a atenção de muitos estudiosos. No Brasil, dado o passivo histórico de despossuídos, a tardia abolição da escravidão (1888) e a grande extensão geográfica do país, é fato conhecido que a casa própria sempre foi um sonho de milhões de famílias. Até hoje, milhões de moradias precárias marcam a fisionomia urbana das cidades brasileiras. Contudo, os últimos dados censitários permitem concluir que tem havido mudanças nesse quadro. No Brasil urbano, o ritmo de crescimento dos domicílios “próprios” e “não próprios” foi superior ao crescimento demográfico, sobretudo nas regiões Norte, Centro Oeste e Nordeste. Os dados indicam que a propriedade privada no Brasil se expandiu significativamente no começo do século XXI. Houve uma redução relativa dos imóveis residenciais de apenas um cômodo nas áreas urbanas, assim como aumentou a oferta de imóveis “não próprios” para serem alugados em todos os estados. De um modo geral, os domicílios “próprios” e “não próprios” tornaram-se mais “adequados”, principalmente no Sudeste, embora cerca de 22% dos domicílios estivessem alugados a preços excessivos em 2010.<hr/>Abstract: The issue of private property and its correlation with the expansion of modernity, with the affirmation of industrial capitalism, and with the consecration of laws and fundamental clauses is age-old and permeates the philosophical approaches from Plato and Aristotle to Morus, Hobbes, and Locke, reaching even authors from the Age of Enlightenment such as Rousseau and Voltaire, among others. The debate over private property is, therefore, a recurring subject that still captures the attention of many research scholars. In Brazil, given the historical record of the dispossessed, the late abolition of slavery (1888), and the sheer size of the country, it is a given fact that owning a household has always been the dream of millions of families. Even today, millions of precarious households shape the physiognomy of Brazilian cities. Nevertheless, recent census data have lead to the conclusion that changes in this scenario have occurred. In urban Brazil, the growth rate of “owned” and “unowned” households has been greater than demographic growth, especially in the North, Midwest, and Northeast regions of the country. The “unowned” / “owned” proportion has risen in all Sates of the Federal Union, and in many cases, this increase has been remarkable, in excess of 40%. The three regions where the growth rate of “owned” households proved to be higher (North, Northeast, and Midwest) also stand out among those that show the most noticeable increase in the ratio between “owned” and “unowned” households. The results also indicate a strong expansion of “unowned” and rented households in the country. The annual growth reached 3.79% from 2000 to 2010, significantly higher than the growth of the resident population in Brazil, and all states showed positive growth rates. The proportion of “owned” households by city, as compared to the average of “owned” households in Brazil, clearly shows that, in the vast majority of Brazilian cities, the percentage of “owned” households was high in both 2000 and 2010. As regards “unowned” households, it is important to highlight the amount of households managed as real estate for rent. The expansion of this type of real estate may well relativize the supposed advantages of the expansion of household real estate. What should also be noted is the increase in the proportion of rented urban households over this period in all States of the Federal Union. The most significant increases occurred in the North (8.2%), Northeast (6.2%), and Midwest (6.0%) regions of the country. To note, all the states in the North, Midwest, and Northeast regions (except for Ceará), and the states of Espírito Santo and Santa Catarina, are above the mean national growth rate (4.7%). Thus, it can be inferred that where there is an accelerated expansion of “owned” real estate, there is also a simultaneous acceleration of the supply of real estate for rent. A decline in households deemed inappropriate is also evident. There are data indicating that until 2000, at least 80.7% of one-bedroom households were located in urban areas. In 2010, a sharp decline of 10 per cent points (67.2%) could be observed in this proportion, demonstrating that precarious housing still remains and is high in rural areas: 169,450 one-bedroom households in 2000 and 183,881 in 2010. In relative terms, these figures account for 32.6% of the total number of rural households in 2000 and 43.8% in 2010. Also important is that in urban Brazil, approximately 22% of households rented in 2010 were in fact occupied; this is due primarily to excessive rental prices, i.e. households in which low-income families spend more than 30% of their income. Even more relevant is that in the five major regions, this proportion is approximately 20%. The southeast, where the number of activities that produce jobs is much greater and the presence of “owned” and “unowned” households is larger, is also the area where excessive rents are more significant, directly influencing the Brazilian average: many families with an income of up to three minimum wages pay excessive rents (23.7%). The data available indicate that private property in Brazil expanded markedly in the early twenty-first century. One-bedroom residential real estate experienced a sharp decline in urban areas, while the supply of “unowned” real estate for rent rose in all states. In general, “owned” and “unowned” households have become more “appropriate”, especially in the southeast, although nearly 22% of households were rented at excessively high prices in 2010. <![CDATA[The Mountain Passes of Atlatlahuca: a 15th and 16th Century Strategic Space]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300137&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Desde el punto de vista cultural, la cuenca alta del río Lerma ha estado históricamente vinculada con la cuenca del río Amacuzac, afluente del Balsas. En tiempo prehispánico, la llamada Provincia Matlatzinca -compuesta de varias unidades autónomas- se extendió hacia ambos lados de la divisoria de aguas. En este artículo nos centraremos en el papel de Tenango y de Atlatlahuca, actual Estado de México, como espacios privilegiados que articulan a ambas cuencas a través de un área de suave relieve. Analizaremos los cambios en el paisaje producto de los procesos político-territoriales y de urbanización que se verificaron desde el posclásico mesoamericano y enumeraremos las consecuencias que tuvieron lugar en la época colonial. El carácter estratégico de este espacio no ha sido suficientemente valorado hasta ahora por otros geógrafos. Consiste en abrir una extensa área de control político-militar que permite el acceso a ambientes diferentes desde los cuales se pudieron obtener variados recursos naturales. Para explicarlo echaremos mano del enfoque propio de la geografía cultural.<hr/>Abstract: The environmental characteristics of the upper Lerma river basin and the accessibility to the Balsas midelevation basin from its southern margins facilitated the settlement of different human groups since the early history of Mesoamerica. The mountain passes of Atlatlahuca were one of the most strategic ancient routes that communicated these basins, since no steep slopes had to be walked to descend or climb up over 700 meters, from the pre-Hispanic village of Atlatlahuca to the valley of Tenancingo. So far, the relevance of these mountain passes has not been recognized by the studies focused on the territorial evolution of the upper Lerma basin and neighboring regions. The fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were the time when the strategic quality of these mountain passes reached its peak, first under the rule of the Matlatzinca federation, and later by the Aztecs and their allies. Historical approaches to the territorial evolution of the upper Lerma basin have focused on the lacustrine area that used to cover the lowlands; in our view, this approach is insufficient to explain the territorial evolution of this basin. An approach beyond watersheds or contemporary administrative limits, encompassing broader temporal and spatial scales, has revealed the strategic character of these mountain passes. Understanding these territorial priorities also requires to acknowledge the changes in landscape of the main historical settlements that controlled the access to these mountain passes: Tenango and Atlatlahuca. Our goal is not to outline a definitive version of this territorial structure; instead, we want to set the grounds for a discussion from a geographical viewpoint ranging several historic stages. Our explanation is based on the principles of contemporary Cultural Geography and their application to areas of Mesoamerican tradition, and was derived from a continuous temporal analysis encompassing the Mesoamerican Post-Classic period and most of the 16th century. The cultural approach in geography aims to understand the thoughts and priorities of local inhabitants within their territorial context in different historical stages. In our case, the territorial structure we aim to explain involves physical changes in landscape, as well as changes in land use or in the way the environment is perceived according to different cultural practices. In physical and biological terms, our case of study is located in the transition zone between Nearctic and Neotropical regions in southern-central Mexico. The mountain passes of Atlatlahuca descend from around 2 700 m a.s.l. to approximately 2 000 m in the valley of Tenancingo within less than 15 kilometers. The physical characteristics that assured a broad range of supplies and the control of vast territories. In our cultural reconstruction, besides physical and biological conditions, it is also necessary to understand the concept of altepetl: a nahuatl word that literally means “water mountain” and defines the Mesoamerican post-Classic urban space. Most of the altepetl found by the Spaniards became pueblos de indios in the sixteenth century. In the Matlatzinca language -the predominant language in the area before the Aztec conquest circa 1470- altepetl translates to inpuhetzi. The territorial structure we attempt to explain is based on the settlement of several inpuhetzi during the early Mesoamerican post-Classic times, some at the Nevado de Toluca piedmont and others on isolated mountains within the upper Lerma basin: Tenango and Atlaltlahuca were among these settlements. This location allowed the Matlatzinca people to defend themselves from the attacks coming from the basin of Mexico. However, this defense does not explain the permanence and magnificence accomplished by the Matlatzinca for centuries. For us, the control of the Atlatlahuca mountain passes is key in the achievement of such grandeur, a territorial pattern shared with other nations settled along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. In this territorial logic, huge volcanoes or steep canyons were not territorial boundaries but articulation means. The importance of the Atlatlahuca mountain pass area also derives from the large number of political and administrative units settled there before the Spanish conquest. In less than 200 square kilometers there were six altepetl and two villages ruled directly from Tacuba, a minor partner of the Aztecs. The Spanish conquest led to the abandonment of this ancient route. First, its strategic value from a military point of view disappeared after the whole of central Mexico was under Spanish control. Second, the depopulation throughout the sixteenth century and the priority given by Spaniards to the healthy highlands led to the abandonment of most of the ancient commercial routes. Third, among the major mining towns located southwest of Mexico City, only Zacualpan continued using this route, which was also used by the wheat producers from the valley of Tenancingo and by merchants that traveled far into depopulated tropical lands. This commercial activity started to grow in the second half of the eighteenth century, when repopulation started and some tropical products were demanded by world markets. <![CDATA[Territorial structure of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300152&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Toward a near-real time forest monitoring system [Technical note]]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300168&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Trabajo de campo en el territorio de San Juan Lachao, Oaxaca. Un acercamiento desde las “otras” geografías al paisaje chatino]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300176&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Sarlo, B. (2014), <em>Viajes. De la Amazonia a las Malvinas</em>, Seix Barral, Biblioteca Los Tres Mundos, Buenos Aires, 267 p., ISBN 978-950-731-800-9]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300182&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Caballero Trejo, N. F. (2014), <em>El refugio de la memoria: la Comisión Mexicana de Límites entre México y Guatemala, 1878-1899</em>, Secretaría de Relaciones Exteriores, Dirección General del Acervo Histórico Diplomático, México, 296 p., ISBN 978-607-446-063-6]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300185&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Semi, G. (2015), <em>Gentrification. Tutte le Città come Disneyland?</em> Il Mulino, Bolonia, 237 p., ISBN 978-88-15-25803-8]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300187&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Pinzón Ríos G. y F. Trejo Rivera (Coords.: 2015), <em>El mar: percepciones, lecturas y contextos. Una mirada cultural a los entornos marítimos</em>, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Instituto de Investigaciones Históricas, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, México, (Serie Historia General/31) 412 p., ISBN-UNAM: 978-607-02-6484-9; ISBN-INAH: 978-607-484-652-2]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300190&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Santacruz, G. y F. Peña (Coord.: 2015), <em>Miradas sobre dinámicas territoriales en México</em>, El Colegio de San Luis, San Luis Potosí, México, 164 p., ISBN 978-607-9401-55-9]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300193&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Suárez Lastra, M. C. Galindo Pérez y M. Murata (2016), <em>Bicicletas para la ciudad: Una propuesta metodológica para el diagnóstico y la planeación de infraestructura ciclista</em>, Instituto de Geografía, UNAM, (Colección: Geografía para el siglo XXI, Serie: Libros de Investigación, núm. 17) México, 159 p., ISBN 978-607-02-7602-6]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300195&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Instalación: “Isaac Julien. <em>Playtime & Kapital</em>”, Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneo (MUAC), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Cd. Mx., 6 de febrero-31 de julio de 2016]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300197&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[<em>In Memoriam</em> Mario Arturo Ortiz Pérez (1943-2016)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300200&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Ciclo de conferencias “Vivienda y migración. Una mirada desde la geografía crítica”, Instituto de Geografía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Cd. Mx., 22 y 26 de septiembre de 2016]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300205&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California. <![CDATA[Exposición fotográfica: “La fotografía aérea de la Fundación ICA”, Instituto de Geografía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria, Cd. Mx., agosto-noviembre 2016]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112016000300208&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Esta investigación tiene como objetivo principal analizar la estructura territorial de la actividad pesquera en Guaymas, Sonora. El trabajo se divide en tres partes: en primer término, se exponen las posiciones teórico-metodológicas de la investigación, al tiempo que se contextualiza la situación de este sector económico en América Latina y México. En seguida, se revisan las condiciones geográficofísicas del Golfo de California, y se caracteriza la situación general de la actividad pesquera en esta región. En tercer lugar, se examina el escenario específico de Guaymas, observando la situación de los pescadores artesanales, las peculiaridades de la cadena de valor de la principal especie capturada y principal recurso pesquero local (la sardina), así como las características de la pesquería del camarón y de la acuicultura. En consideración de lo anterior se elaboró un mapa sintético que revela la dimensión territorial de la economía pesquera en esta parte de México, y que muestra a Guaymas como el nodo principal que articula los diversos eslabonamientos de la pesca sonorense, desde la captura a su comercialización internacional.<hr/>Abstract: The aim of this paper is to ascertain the territorial dimension of the fishing economy in Guaymas, Mexico. The geographical studies addressing this economic activity in Mexico and published in the last decades are scarce. For this reason, this research work is particularly important, as it outlines the fishery activities in one of the most active sea-ports of northwest Mexico, from a territorial perspective. The first part of this article explains why and how Economic Geography addresses fishery activities and which methodology we pursued to carry out this investigation, based on studies carried out by geographers, particularly in France and Argentina. Then the paper describes the natural conditions prevailing in the Gulf of California (also known as Sea of Cortez), a large inlet of the eastern Pacific Ocean that is rich in marine resources and where most of the main national fisheries are located. Guaymas is one of the most important sea ports located along the Gulf of California for its long fishing history and the variety of fishing species captured. This port, located in the southern coast of the state of Sonora, is a mediumsized city with a little over 100 thousand inhabitants; a considerable proportion of the local labor force works in the fishery sector and associated industries. Today, the fishery sector in Guaymas is characterized by a large number of artisan fishermen, a prominent fleet preciand the regular practise of illegal catching. This port is the seat of large enterprises, such as Ocean Garden, involved in the industrialization of catches (basically fish oil and fish meal) and their further commercialization within and outside Mexico. Two commercially important species have played a key role in the evolution and outline of the current territorial structure of fisheries in Guaymas. One is shrimp, with a fishery that recorded a boom during 1970-1990, bringing along a number of benefits for local fishermen in Sonora. This fishery declined in subsequent years, mostly due to the overexploitation of shrimp banks and the incorporation of private capital investors to the local shrimp economy; the downward trend of this fishery in Guaymas is still evident. For its part, sardine, particularly Monterey sardine, is the other important species in the economy in this sea port. It is captured to meet the demand for oil and fish meal. Since the 1960s, Guaymas has become Mexico's sardine port, as this species is at the core of the territorial structure of fisheries in this city. A significant volume of sardine biomass has been captured in the last 50 years in Guaymas, resulting in the overexploitation of the resource which, along with water pollution, has led to the collapse of sardine populations. Nonetheless, stakeholders and authorities involved this fishery have obtained the international certification of local sardine catches. There are several enterprises located in Guaymas dedicated to the industrial processing of sardine. These are vertically integrated, so they can easily buy catches, process them and sell the manufactured products both in Mexico and abroad. Markets for these and other fishing products are located at a considerable distance from Guaymas, including Mexico City, Guadalajara, Mexicali and Chihuahua City, as well and several places in California, United States. The territorial structure of the fishing economy in this part of Mexico is arranged on a spatial platform constituted by high-volume and diverse annual catches, an integrated sea port that not only addresses the needs of this economy but also serves the robust industrial and agricultural sectors of Sonora. Shipyards, large enterprises (national and foreign) involved in the fishing industry, banks, academic research centers and government offices can be added to the local fishing infrastructure. The geographical reach of the commercialization of fishing products (processed or otherwise), including several markets located far from this port, is another factor that accounts for the central role of Guaymas in the fishing economy of Sonora and the Gulf of California.