Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Investigaciones geográficas]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/rss.php?pid=0188-461120190002&lang=en vol. num. 99 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.org.mx <![CDATA[Editorial]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Hillslope processes and floods zoning from a morphometric analysis in the Upper General Basin, Costa Rica]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200101&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En países tropicales como Costa Rica, la incidencia de procesos de ladera e inundaciones están condicionados por las lluvias extraordinarias, el tipo de sustrato y su grado de meteorización, la sismicidad, la morfología y la inclinación del terreno. La recurrencia y magnitud de estos procesos afectan la cuenca alta del río General en términos de pérdidas económicas y muertes en sus comunidades. En este trabajo se realiza un análisis que calcula y analiza siete variables morfométricas (altimetría, inclinación del terreno, densidad de la disección, profundidad de la disección, energía del relieve, erosión potencial y erosión total). Mediante la integración espacial de las siete variables morfométricas se elaboran mapas de susceptibilidad a inundaciones y procesos de ladera. Tres categorías de susceptibilidad fueron definidas para cada peligro geomorfológico: máxima ocurrencia, ocurrencia frecuente y área potencial. Estos mapas son comparados espacialmente con la base de datos de desastres DesInventar. Un 85.15% de los reportes coinciden con las zonas identificadas como propensas a inundación y el 76.54% con las áreas susceptibles a procesos de ladera. El método morfométrico utilizado es de bajo costo, y además podría ser replicado en otras regiones tropicales y en países en vías de desarrollo como insumo de base para la toma de decisiones en la gestión del riesgo a desastres y el ordenamiento territorial.<hr/>Abstract In tropical countries as Costa Rica, mass movements and floods are triggered by intense precipitation events, weathering, rock control, seismicity, morphology, and slopes angle. The recurrence and magnitude of these processes provoke economic losses and casualties in the communities of the Upper General River Basin in the center-south of Costa Rica. A morphometric analysis is performed to calculate and analyze seven variables (altimetry, slopes, dissection density, dissection profundity, relief energy, potential erosion, and total erosion). Within this analysis, five morphological regions were determined: mountain zone (Cordillera de Talamanca), floodplain, accumulative ramp (alluvial fans), minor mountain ranges (Fila Brunqueña), and mountain foothills covered by proluvial sediments. The mountain zone is intensely modeled with the presence of extensive weathering crusts on inclined and fractured slopes, which favors fluvial-gravitational processes. The minor mountain ranges serve as limit to the alluvial plain of the Pacuar and General River, that due to its sedimentary lithology, steep slopes, the rain regime and changes of land use, favor the slope instability of this region. The mountain foothills have a plateau morphology with alluvial covers on the base of the slopes. The accumulative proluvial ramp is the transition between the mountain zone and the floodplain, its morphology is defined by the presence of alluvial fans superimposed and continuous as a glacis. Finally, the floodplain is defined by the seasonal and extraordinary flooding areas. The slopes map is a first approximation of the gravitational dynamics. It helps to identify landforms associated with the fluvial erosive-accumulative action. The dissection density map showed zones of greater or lesser erosion, where the channels concentration are linked to rainy zones (&gt;2500 mm annually), the existence of a poorly consolidated and altered substratum (weathering crusts), the presence of disjunctive structures, large areas without significant lithological changes, and a heterogeneous morphology. In addition, the dissection profundity makes evident the influence of the disjunctive structures in the erosive and accumulative relief dynamics. In this context it is necessary to consider that the valleys vertical growth causes slopes instability and favor gravitational processes. The relief energy integrates fluvial action (dissection density and dissection profundity) and slopes in its analysis. These three elements are closely linked to mass wasting. It also considers lithology, the influence of weathering, the faults activity, earthquakes and precipitation. On the other hand, potential erosion locates indirectly areas with denudation susceptibility, linked to factors such as specific lithological characteristics, topographic contrasts, morphological variety, hydroclimatic conditions, vegetation cover, and even land use changes. In the case of total erosion, areas with greater erodibility and with older morphologies were distinguished through the terrain roughness, and the role played by variables such as lithology age, disjunctive structures, the past climate (glaciations), the current rainfall patterns, and slopes are inferred. To produce the flood and hillslope processes susceptibility maps, each morphometric variables result were grouped into three ranges (high, medium and low), which allowed a cross analysis. The territories where up to two morphometric indicators coincided, were considered as potential areas; the areas where three indexes were overcome, were classified as frequent occurrence areas, and the spaces classified as maximum occurrence were those where four or five variables were present. These criteria were applied for hillslope processes as well as for floods. These maps are spatially compared with the disaster database DesInventar where 85.15% of the reports coincide with the zones identified as prone to flooding and 76.54% with susceptible areas to hillslope processes. This method can be easily replicated since only the contours lines and rivers are used, the measurements are simple and can be made from a Geographical Information System (GIS) in its entirety. This condition speeds up the digitization times of fluvial channels, the processing of information, the systematization of the procedure, and the practicality to make different measurements as well as to take precise data of contour lines and fluvial data. The procedure can be implemented for watersheds territorial management and political-administrative units at local and regional scales. Geomorphometry is a practical tool for mitigating disaster risk by determining floods and hillslope processes susceptible areas. The morphometric method proves to be a low-cost method that could be replicated in other tropical regions and developing countries as a baseline input for decision making in disaster risk management and land use planning. <![CDATA[Susceptibility to rock landslides in the La Teresona-Zopilocalco Norte suburb of Toluca: assumptions for community development]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200102&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El crecimiento de los perímetros urbanos en México ha dado lugar a la ocupación de territorios de condiciones geomorfológicas complejas. Este es el caso del sector centro-norte de la ciudad de Toluca, donde actualmente residen 21 687 personas. Este trabajo se enfoca en el análisis de la susceptibilidad a los desprendimientos de rocas donde se consideran criterios litológicos, morfoestructurales y de ocupación y uso de la superficie. La integración de estas variables permitió revelar cinco niveles de susceptibilidad a los desprendimientos de rocas: muy baja, baja, media, alta y muy alta. Los resultados obtenidos evidencian las características desfavorables del sector para el desarrollo de infraestructura urbana. La desinformación geográfica sobre la realidad de este escenario ha conducido a un panorama de vulnerabilidad construida, con 4 270 viviendas en condiciones de media, alta y muy alta susceptibilidad a los desprendimientos, donde residen 15 796 personas. Esta condición de exposición produce un sistemático impacto en el desarrollo local, constatado actualmente con afectaciones a los inmuebles y a las vialidades, y atentando contra la vida social.<hr/>Abstract In the last half-century, the world scientific community, government authorities, and civil society have paid particular attention to environmental management, land-use planning, use of alternative energies, and many other guidelines, seeking to safeguard and improve environmental quality, preserve biodiversity, and ensure sustainable development. This vision of development requires consistent policies, where all urban development, land-use management, productive, and social actions, among many, focus on meeting the needs of the current population and future generations, in a way that is harmonized with the natural conditions and resources, especially at the local level. In this regards, it is understandable that the analysis of the dangers of natural genesis, including mass removal processes, is a prerequisite to achieving sound land-use and urban-planning policies for the establishment and development of safer communities, where the free fall of rocky debris through steep slopes do not threaten the physical and social vulnerability of these communities. At the international level, authors like Tanarro and Muñoz (2012) have elaborated geo-referenced inventories of rock falls in the Duero river basin for comparison with other geological-geomorphological parameters, and like Antoniou and Lekkas (2010), who used engineering and geological information, structural analysis, and geomorphology to elaborate maps on the likelihood of reach of boulders and determine the susceptibility of at-risk human activities. The growth of settlements in urban outskirts in Mexico has led to the occupation of land of complex geomorphological and geological conditions, specifically in mountainous systems in volcanic buildings. This is the case of the centralnorth suburbs of the city of Toluca (La Teresona-Zopilocalco Norte), where 21687 inhabitants currently live. This urban sector occupies a stretch of 4.0 km along Paseo Matlazincas, a roadway used as reference to delimit the area of study, from the highest mountain tops located to the north of the roadway; to the south, the limit was drafted at 2690 m a.s.l., which marks a significant difference on terrain slope. Along this corridor, cracks in the asphalt layer of some roadways, cracking of household walls, and fallen rocky blocks of approximately 2.5 m in diameter that at times have impacted Paseo de los Matlazincas, the main communication roadway. Given this situation, it is essential to the elaborate maps on the degrees of susceptibility to rock landslides to make decisions for the implementation of prevention or mitigation measures within a context of local planning addressing the most threatened priority sites. The research process for the analysis of susceptibility to rock landslides is carried out in three phases: 1. Data collection and analysis of information directly related to rock landslides; 2. Elaboration of the thematic cartography on the determinants of this geomorphic process and its integrated analysis; and 3. Validation of field results. The analysis of susceptibility to rock landslides includes criteria related to lithology, morphostructure, occupation, and land use, which were inventoried. The inventory form used allowed the tabulation of physical elements that are key for the interpretation of gravitational processes, with an emphasis on rock landslides, namely: (1) location, including the geographic coordinates; (2) description of the geological material; (3) structural analysis of slopes, including measurements of dip direction and angle of lava flows or strata, as well as structural measurements of planes of failures; (4) type of event (detachment, sliding, overturning, or flow); (5) current state of the event (active or inactive); and (6) damage caused. The integration of these variables revealed five levels of rock landslide susceptibility: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. The results obtained show the unfavorable characteristics of the area for the development of urban infrastructure. The susceptibility analyses conducted clearly show that this urban area is unfavorable for the development of large infrastructures, such as hospitals, schools, shopping malls, and even for household development and roadways. Currently, poor urban planning and disregard of the geomorphological conditions in the site have led to a scenario of building vulnerability, with 4270 households under conditions of medium, high, and very high susceptibility to landslides, which are home to 15796 persons. This degree of exposure causes a systematic impact on local development, as observed in this study, with damages to both buildings and roadways. <![CDATA[Social strategies and risk management in the nahua ethnic region of sierra costa of Michoacán]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200103&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Por sus condiciones de vulnerabilidad, la etnoregión nahua en la Sierra Costa de Michoacán está expuesta al riesgo ante amenazas hidrometereológicas. El impacto de las amenazas de manera recurrente ha provocado daños y pérdidas económicas a un grupo social marginado, con un elevado índice de pobreza y rezago educativo, con opciones restringidas de desarrollo y bienestar y altamente vulnerable. Mediante métodos cualitativos (observación en campo, revisión documental, talleres y cartografía participativa, recopilación de testimonios y entrevistas semi-estructuradas) se presentan los resultados de un estudio dirigido a reconocer el conocimiento socialmente construido en un espacio-tiempo específico (base de las estrategias sociales adaptativas) y las prácticas culturales que han contribuido a la implementación de mecanismos que han mejorado la capacidad de respuesta de las comunidades. Exponemos la importancia de incorporar estrategias adaptativas y capacidades locales en un marco de cogestión del riesgo. Partimos del supuesto de que los actores sociales conocen el territorio, sus problemas y su dinámica y están interesados en prevenir el riesgo, también porque constituyen la primera fuente de ayuda a los afectados. Una vez que se han identificado las condiciones de riesgo y se han documentado las estrategias sociales adaptativas, se integran la información de otros científicos, análisis de políticas y tomadores de decisiones para construir capacidades de gestión (de qué manera la comunidad puede planificar y mitigar el riesgo).<hr/>Abstract Given its conditions of vulnerability, the Nahua ethnic region located in Sierra Costa de Michoacán is exposed to threats posed by hydrometeorological conditions. The recurring impact of these threats has caused damages and economic losses to a marginalized social group characterized by a high poverty index and educational gap, high vulnerability, and limited access to development and well-being. The objectives of the present analysis are the identification and documentation of the risk conditions typically faced by the community and how it copes with them and identify potential options for strengthening community capacities. This reports the results of a study aiming to recognize the knowledge constructed by society in a specific space and period (which is the basis of adaptive social strategies), and the cultural practices that have contributed to the implementation of mechanisms that have improved community responsiveness. To this end, we used qualitative methods (field observation, literature review, workshops, and participatory mapping, testimonies, and semi-structured interviews). This knowledge has been built from the observation of the landscape before, during, and after an event, and the severity of impacts. Depending on losses and damages, the risk can be categorized as mild, moderate, and catastrophic. The spatial dimension of knowledge was represented by maps of risk that integrated the capabilities of the local community, schools, clinics, etc. The information compiled supported the development of adaptive strategies such as the extensive social mobility within the territory ranging from settlements in the Sierra to those in coastal plains and deltas. This mobility is based on kinship ties and reciprocity within the community. The repairing of roads through community work is the most common mitigation practice; if access roads are interrupted, members of the community build or open secondary roads to manage the emergency. The community rules relate to adaptive strategies, with the Assembly as the highest authority in the community, responsible for designing which zones are suitable for human settlements, according to the environmental characteristics and preferences of the population. Also, it allocates economic resources to the maintenance and repairing of the main roads. Mestizo settlements within the Nahua territory are organized through local leaders who form response brigades for the monitoring, establishment of evacuation routes, delimitation of safe shelter areas, depending on their previous experience. In spite of the immediate and positive response in Huahua and the efforts by some community members to keep active brigades, the organization in place is poorly maintained, which could contribute to the cyclical nature of risks. Finally, we highlight the importance of incorporating adaptive strategies and local capacities within a framework of risk co-management. We assume that the social stakeholders know the territory, its issues and dynamics, and are interested in preventing risks, also because they represent the first source of help for those affected. Once the risk conditions are identified and the adaptive social strategies are documented, decision-makers integrate the information from other scientists and the analysis of policies to build management capacities (so that the community is capable of planning and mitigating any risks). <![CDATA[Temporal and spatial variability analysis of daily precipitation in the metropolitan area of Queretaro, using an anisotropy scheme]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200104&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen La cartografía en hidrología es una de las formas tradicionales de representar la variabilidad espacial de eventos climáticos y ambientales. Sin embargo, pocas veces se pone atención a cómo se construyen, por ejemplo, los mapas de isoyetas. Una incorrecta selección del método de interpolación espacial puede ocasionar errores en la estimación de magnitudes. Se realiza una caracterización espacial y temporal de la variabilidad en la precipitación horaria de la zona metropolitana de Santiago de Querétaro. Se utilizan láminas de lluvia medidas a cada minuto de las diez tormentas más intensas registradas en los años 2013, 2014 y 2015. Utilizando variogramas direccionales, distancia entre estaciones y un esquema de anisotropía se obtienen los parámetros óptimos a emplear en una interpolación por Kriging. Los resultados muestran que en el mes de junio existe una mayor variabilidad de la precipitación en la zona metropolitana y que la lámina de precipitación tiene una correlación directa con la distancia entre estaciones. El análisis permite seleccionar de forma correcta los variogramas direccionales que deben emplearse para la interpolación espacial y la cartografía de campos de lluvia.<hr/>Abstract Cartography in hydrology is one of the traditional ways of representing the spatial variability of climatic and environmental events. However, attention is hardly ever focused on how, for example, isohyets maps are constructed. Incorrect selection of the spatial interpolation method can lead to errors in the estimation of magnitudes. Because the early warning systems that work in the State of Querétaro and are used by the Civil Protection authorities during the rainy season, they transmit their information every minute. It is necessary to have spatial interpolation tools that allow us to obtain values with a minimum of error. The warning systems have a spatial interpolation subroutine (cartography) incorporated, in such a way that the authorities can estimate in real time the precipitation level in a determined place, even though there is no meteorological station in situ. A spatial and temporal characterization of the variability in the hourly precipitation of the metropolitan area of Santiago de Querétaro is carried out. Rain gauges are used, measured at each minute of the ten most intense storms recorded in the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. Using directional variograms, distance between stations and an anisotropy scheme, the optimal parameters to be used in a Kriging interpolation are obtained. The comparison of the variograms, for example for the month of July, for the years 2013, 2014, 2015 made it possible to identify that the range of validity of the measurements (distance) does not change in spite of the fact that the theoretical formulation of the variogram is modified. In this way, a parameter called alpha can be introduced to explain the spatial variability of rainfall. This is useful because it shows that the precipitation record is a function of the distance at which the observations are valid, something that was already known but not verified in urban areas. The results show that in June there is a greater variability of precipitation in the metropolitan area and that the precipitation pattern has a direct correlation with the distance between rain stations. The analysis allows the correct selection of directional variograms to be used for spatial interpolation and rain field mapping. As an example, data are taken from the storm of August 18, 2014, which was a severe storm that caused severe economic and material damage in the metropolitan area of the city of Queretaro. With this scheme of variability was made the mapping of the isohyets of the storm that day, considering an interpolation with traditional Kriging and a cartography affected by a directional variogram and the alpha parameter. In order to validate the proposed methodology, a cross validation was carried out with the Historical Center rain station, as it is the area most attended by the authorities during the rainy season. The station data were omitted in the estimation of the interpolation of the grid to generate the cartography. Also, 7800 points were calculated to generate a grid interpolated with the proposed formulation and it was demonstrated that the estimated values are acceptable. The results of this work will make it possible to calibrate the spatial interpolation models that work in the hydro-informatics tools used by the Civil Protection authorities. <![CDATA[Performance Evaluation of Rainfall Data Fill-in Methods in Two Morphostructural Areas of South-Central Chile]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200105&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen Una de las principales preocupaciones de los científicos al trabajar con datos temporales es la calidad de la información. Los datos meteorológicos, que son entradas de modelos y predicciones hidroclimáticas, generalmente carecen de series completas. El uso de técnicas de relleno frecuentemente ignora las características orográficas del área de estudio y la precisión del método, produciendo alteraciones en los resultados con importantes consecuencias. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar los métodos de relleno de datos pluviométricos razón normal y modelo de regresión lineal (LRM, por sus siglas en inglés), por medio de un análisis del error de estimación aplicado a un registro de 32 años de precipitaciones en dos unidades morfoestructurales distintas localizadas en la región del Biobío, Centro Sur de Chile: la planicie costera y el valle central. Los resultados evidenciaron que el método de Razón Normal presenta menor variabilidad en los errores de estimación y una mejor aproximación a los datos reales para ambas zonas.<hr/>Abstract The quality of the information in meteorological data time series has always been a concern for the scientific community. The scarcity of information requires the use of data fill-in techniques and methods that frequently ignore the orographic features of the study area, as well as the method accuracy, leading to inaccurate results with important consequences. In this context, this paper seeks to evaluate two methods for filling rainfall data, namely Normal Ratio and Linear Regression Model (LRM), applied to two morphostructural zones in the south central region of Chile, through an error analysis of a 32-year series of precipitation data. Both methods were compared considering 65 of 112 stations across the region, located on the coastal plain and central valley. Subsequently, two time-consistent base stations were defined, one for each area; pluviometric and proximity criteria, as well as the amount of information available, were applied to choose five neighboring stations. After calculating the correlation between stations, using a probability analysis by quartiles and the Shapiro-Wilk test the normality of the LRM models was confirmed, as well as the homogeneity of the adjusted predictions and residuals. The Normal Ratio method evaluated rainfall estimates by weighting mean annual rainfall in the neighboring stations, where each weighting factor corresponds to the ratio between the precipitation figure recorded in the auxiliary station and the mean annual rainfall of the respective station. The performance of each method was assessed using the following estimators: Mean Error, Coefficient of Determination (CoD), Mean Squared Error (MSE), RootMean-Square Error (RMSE), Sum of Squared Residuals (SSR), Mean Relative Error (MRE), and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE). The statistical analysis reveals a greater range of temporal variation in precipitation in the Central Valley relative to the Coastal Zone, except for one station, and a positive relationship between altitude and a broader pluviometric range. LRM shows greater data dispersion at station Chiguayante; moreover, according to the CoD, this is the station with the lowest prediction potential. In most of the cases analyzed, we found an inverse relationship between the sum of squared residuals (SSR) and the number of annual precipitation data available in each station. The estimators SSR, MSE, and RMSE penalize large residuals, revealing that for the 32-year series studied, The Normal Ratio yields better performance and lower prediction error in the target stations in both morphostructural areas, with Dichato as the station with the lowest mean error and Mayulermo as the station with the lowest mean relative error, for both methods in the sample selected. As Dichato was the station with the greatest Euclidean distance from the base, the distance is discarded as a major predictive factor, contrary to our findings regarding data dispersion. The analysis of residuals (SSR, MSE, RMSE) indicated that the Linear Regression Model is influenced by outliers. However, these values were considered, since eliminating the extreme values, as is usually done in regression analysis, may result in losing relevant information about maximum and minimum precipitation that is useful in the analysis of extreme climatic events such as drought. The efficiency of both methods for predicting actual values was evaluated through the estimators SSR and CoD, showing that in the present analysis, the Normal Ratio involves a higher CoD and a lower residual variability. Although regression remains a widely used and recommended method, the Normal Ratio should be reconsidered for the prediction of missing data in precipitation series in areas of south central Chile with records available for neighboring stations that could support the equation for the data required. The quadratic estimators MSE and RMSE allow inferring that those stations showing a lower mean error, where the predictive methods analyzed were most successful, were the stations where precipitation showed a more stable behavior around the mean. The dimensionless estimators MRE and MAPE confirmed the advantage of the Normal Ratio and determined that the best mean performance of the prediction was related to data dispersion rather than to the Euclidean distance between stations and the base station. The two methods evaluated offer a simple way to estimate meteorological data when the information available is insufficient; however, the Normal Ratio demonstrated a better performance relative to LRM for estimating missing precipitation data, regardless of the geomorphological area selected. <![CDATA[Animal geography: opportunities and challenges of a new approach to the geographical study of relationships between humans and non-human animals]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200106&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En el contexto geográfico iberoamericano, el análisis de la fauna silvestre se ha insertado tradicionalmente en el campo de la zoogeografía, mientras que el estudio de la ganadería y de la fauna cinegética se ha abordado desde la geografía rural y del turismo y, en menor medida, desde la geografía del paisaje. En la geografía anglosajona, sin embargo, desde los años noventa del siglo XX se ha venido desarrollando una nueva corriente conocida como “geografía de los animales”. Con una perspectiva diferente -en este caso desde la geografía cultural-, esta subdisciplina analiza la dimensión espacial de las complejas relaciones entre el ser humano y los animales. Su desarrollo y expansión se han materializado con la aparición de un creciente número de publicaciones en torno al análisis de dichas dimensiones. Se trata de un campo prometedor que está comenzando a ser explorado también por los geógrafos franceses. Sin embargo, esta corriente aún no ha calado lo suficiente en el ámbito de la geografía de habla hispana.<hr/>Abstract Within the Ibero-American geographic context, investigations on wildlife have traditionally been ascribed to Zoogeography, while the study of livestock and wildlife hunting has been studied from the rural geography and tourism perspectives and, to a lesser extent, from landscape geography. In the Anglo-Saxon geography, however, a new trend known as “animal geography” has emerged since the 1990s. Adapting a different perspective -cultural geography --, this sub-discipline analyzes the spatial dimension of the complex relationships between humans and animals. Its development and expansion has materialized with the availability of a growing number of publications that analyze these dimensions. It is a promising field that is beginning to be explored by French geographers as well. However, this approach has not been deeply rooted within the geographic field in Spanish-speaking countries. The present work aims to 1) identify and characterize the different approaches focused on animals within the geographic context of an Ibero-American country, by selecting the specific case of Spain; and 2) summarize the main lines of research arising within the framework of the new geography of animals. The ultimate goal is to explore the opportunities and challenges involved in this emerging field for Ibero-American geographers. The methodology is based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature currently available. A search, collection, and analysis of scientific articles published in English, Spanish and French as of June 2018 was conducted. The sources searched include: i) platforms such as Web of Science (WOS), Scopus, and Google Scholar; ii) Spanish journals of geography; iii) proceedings of all Biogeography Congresses held in Spain to date; (iv) international scientific journals of general geography and, in particular, of cultural geography. For the case of Spain, the results obtained allowed the identification of a zoogeographic current developed over the Past two decades, although of a clearly minority nature compared with phytogeographic studies. Also, the last quarter of the 20th century witnessed the emergence of a research approach known as “hunting geography” that deals with the analysis of hunting. The study of animals from the Spanish geography is supplemented with contributions on marine fisheries, with traditional studies that examine livestock from the scope of rural geography, and with a set of recent investigations on the role of animals in landscape. As regards the geography of animals, the interest in non-human animals has penetrated various areas of human geography, giving rise to fruitful hybridizations. The most relevant works include those that emerged in convergence with urban geography, critical geography, and landscape sciences, with publications on rewilding or those of methodological nature being equally important. Although less abundant, there are also noteworthy investigations carried out within rural geography, political geography, or historical geography. As theoretical and conceptual contributions of this subdiscipline, the expression out of place is worth mentioning, used to describe those animal populations that shatter socially established and spatial boundaries and create conflicts. Undoubtedly, the geography of the animals constitutes an approach that has not ceased to grow and diversify, as evidenced by the growing number of articles published in international geographic journals. The current boom in this sub-discipline is inconsistent with the insufficient attention paid to animals by Hispanic geography, which does not match the growing social awareness in this regard. In many Latin American countries, the relationships between humans and animals are being questioned; the debate on bullfighting, the social conflicts caused by different animal species, or the emergence of new animal landscapes, are good examples of this. Along this line, there is a need to renew the Ibero-American biogeography according to the changing and novel relationships between humans and animals, consistent with the current geographical context. The recent foundation of the Ibero-American Biogeographic Society (2018) represents a unique opportunity for mainstreaming and promoting this promising line of investigation across Ibero-American geographers. <![CDATA[Housing Policy in Mexico: Between Expansion and Return to the Center]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200107&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen La política de vivienda en la Zona Metropolitana del Valle de México se caracteriza por un tránsito entre la construcción masiva de vivienda en la periferia urbana y la redensificación en las áreas centrales. Retomando el concepto de desarrollo geográfico desigual se realiza una revisión sobre la modificación en las políticas habitacionales y los subsidios públicos para la adquisición de vivienda, tanto en la periferia como en áreas centrales. Desde los argumentos propuestos por la geografía crítica se establece que las dinámicas residenciales presentan una tendencia a la concentración de población de bajos ingresos en la periferia metropolitana, mientras a la par, se revalorizan espacios de uso habitacional de las áreas centrales destinados a sectores de población de mayores ingresos. Con ello se aprecia una diferenciación espacial promovida por el mercado formal de vivienda.<hr/>Abstract The housing policy in Mexico is characterized by transiting between promoting the massive construction of housing in the urban periphery and the redensification in central areas. In the case of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA), this has resulted in the confinement of low-income inhabitants in northern and eastern peripheral suburbs, characterized by poor urban equipment, infrastructure, and services, while various selected spaces in the central area are intended for middle-and high-income populations. In the early twenty-first century, the conditions of the “facilitator State” (Puebla, 1999 and 2006), which set favorable conditions for the reproduction of capital, made of the real estate and financial sectors the primary agents in housing construction. The housing sector was considered as a major component of economic activity in the construction industry; therefore, the mass production model was given a significant boost. In the period 2000-2006, support for the real estate offer was stimulated by increasing the number of credits for the purchase of new houses. At that time, more households were built than in any other period, with nearly 1.8 million houses (Iracheta, 2015). In the period 2006-2012, the credit system was maintained, and even strengthened, evidencing the growing importance given to housing construction as a catalyst of the national economy from the beginning of this century. This situation led to the expansion and excessive growth of the urban periphery in medium and large cities, resulting in various issues in the construction of housing areas. Many issues relate to poor infrastructure and urban equipment, few employment sources, and problems related to the quality of basic services such as education and healthcare (Arango, 2013; Cervantes and Maya, 2017; Linares, 2013). This has translated into an increase in abandoned houses. To face this expansion and excessive growth at the periphery of Mexican cities, the discourse of government agencies started stressing the urgent need to mitigate and reverse the consequences of mass housing construction. In this context, at the end of the first decade of this century, a series of regulatory provisions were set forth aiming to promote redensification. The 2014-2018 National Housing Program will be the main instrument for this end. However, two aspects are worth mentioning. First, redensification has benefited middle-and middle-high income inhabitants; second, the discourse has stressed redensification as a factor that reduces expansion and, consequently, the known consequences of mass housing construction, while in reality construction in peripheral areas continues being a good business. As regards the MCMA, the formal housing market scheme can be differentiated in two senses. In central areas, resulting from both federal and local policies - as was the case with “Bando 2” - the construction of households intended for middle-and middle-high income inhabitants was promoted (Benlliure, 2008). In parallel, northern and eastern areas in the urban periphery were allocated to the construction of housing projects for low-income sectors since the price of land is lower relative to delegations and municipalities in central areas of the city. In all municipalities of the MCMA, excluding the 16 districts of Mexico City, the construction of 685,782 houses for more than 3,000,000 inhabitants has been approved from 2000 to 2015 (Secretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Metropolitano, 2016). This situation reveals the urban expansion of the metropolitan periphery. Some aspects that characterize this massive construction include inadequate conditions in terms of infrastructure, equipment, and basic services, which have led to the abandonment of houses and represent key issues. These dynamics in the center and the periphery can be interpreted as an unequal geographic development process (Harvey, 1990; Smith et al., 1984) that is producing differentiated spaces in the MCMA. The end result is the confinement of low-income inhabitants towards the periphery, while various selected spaces in the central area are intended for the high-income population. <![CDATA[Ethnopedology as a Tool for the Characterization of Agroecosystems at the Local Level: The Case of a Coffee Ejido in Central Veracruz]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200108&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen En la actualidad se necesita contar con instrumentos que consideren el conocimiento local para la caracterización de agroecosistemas (AES). Ante tal contexto, la clasificación campesina de tierras de Ortiz-Solorio, Pájaro y Ordaz (1991), como parte de la disciplina etnoedafológica, complementa el conocimiento local con el conocimiento técnico. Esta combinación suministra información detallada para la cartografía, clasificación, descripción de uso, manejo y aprovechamiento no solo de tierras sino de los componentes de cualquier AES. A partir de esto, se pueden obtener insumos para describir a nivel de ejido y de finca la estructura de AES con información actualizada y de primera mano. Se aplicó este método en el ejido Mafafas, ubicado en el municipio de Tepetlán, Veracruz, que presenta problemas de disminución de la productividad de café. Se realizó una clasificación campesina de tierras y también se empleó el método etnoedafológico para recopilar información y caracterizar la estructura de agroecosistemas cafetaleros. Se obtuvo un mapa a escala 1:10 000 y en total se representan ocho clases de tierra con cuatro tipos predominantes de uso del suelo. Además, se analizaron once fincas que mostraron distintas estructuras, aunque muestran patrones en común. Se mostrará una alternativa para caracterizar AES con un método sistémico que se vale del conocimiento local y que resulta de fácil aplicación. Los resultados obtenidos de este procedimiento respaldan la idea de que todos los ejidos requieren un estudio con este enfoque, que sirva como base para la planeación local y el desarrollo del campo mexicano.<hr/>Abstract Through time and across space, the growth of human populations has produced profound and irreversible marks on natural landscapes. The consequences of human activities include deforestation and pollution, which show an ever-increasing intensity and expansion. In addition, conventional farming systems are amongst the major causes of the degradation of natural resources. The characterization of these resources at the local level is fundamental in Mexico in order to optimize the sustainable use of agroecosystems (AES), which provide food while preserving biodiversity and ecological processes. Some of the most important AESs in tropical areas are agro-silvo-pastoral systems, cornfields interspersed with fruit trees and shade coffee plantations. Sustainability can only be achieved with planning as an essential element, and the latter requires the characterization of the territory and its formation processes since it is there where productive activities take place. In particular, soil is a natural component with extremely slow development and is considered a non-renewable natural resource, as it can be degraded and removed over a short time. Therefore, the geographic distribution and genesis of soil should be investigated to achieve efficient uses and conservation. In addition, there is a methodological gap within the topic of AES that restrains an in-depth characterization of these productive systems; hence, it is necessary to consider methodological approaches that have been developed in the past. In this context, the peasant classification of land developed by Ortiz et al. (1991) as part of ethnopedology, complements the local knowledge of farmers with the technical expertise of scientists. This combination provides detailed information for mapping, classification, description of use, management, and exploitation of land and the components of any AES. From this, data can be obtained to describe the structure of AES at the “ejido” and farm levels with updated and first-hand information. The above arguments underline the need to characterize the land and structure of coffee AES of the Mafafas ejido, seeking to identify constraints and potentials to formulate sustainable local planning options. This approach was applied in the ejido of Mafafas, located in the municipality of Tepetlan, Veracruz. This ejido shows a significant decrease in coffee productivity as a result of the increasing frequency of pests in addition to other socioeconomic causes. It is considered that the local knowledge of producers provided comprehensive information of AESs. This can be complemented with scientific knowledge to yield information for the integral characterization of coffee AES at the local level; this is applicable for decision-making, contribute to building communication bridges between both types of knowledge, and is useful to formulate strategies for improved management of local natural resources. A map at 1:10 000 scale was constructed that depicts eight land classes where the predominant pedogenetic processes include the accumulation of clays, melanization, and colluviation; four land uses were identified in these classes. Also, the analysis of 11 farms showed various components and structures, but share common patterns. These overview of the characteristics of soils and the coffee plantations in the Mafafas ejido will set the basis to formulate proposals for improving agricultural productivity in the locality. This study illustrates a feasible alternative to characterize AESs through a systemic and transdisciplinary method that uses local knowledge and it is easy to apply; the results from this procedure support the idea that all ejidos require a study with this approach, to support local planning and development in the Mexican countryside. <![CDATA[The Role of Zoning in the Mining Activity within Federal Natural Protected Areas of Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200109&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract The confluence of mining, an activity that leads to the permanent transformation of the landscape, and conservation, which seeks to preserve or restore natural or sustainable production systems, poses a challenge for environmental and land-use policy. In Mexico, the current environmental legal and regulatory framework allows mining to take place within specific categories of natural protected areas. However, no information is available on the location and type of mining currently in operation throughout the federal system of natural protected areas in Mexico. This paper is the first study addressing the regulatory framework, spatial distribution, nature, and scale of operation of mining activities in federal natural protected areas in Mexico (FNPA). We surveyed those FNPAs where mining is allowed and characterized mining activities in each in terms of mineral type, scale of operation, and status. Also, we explored the modalities whereby zoning schemes allow mining in these FNPAs, as well as the potential implications for conservation. We found that 30 out of 177 FNPAs explicitly allow mining; in all but seven, some sort of mining activity was identified; these activities differed in type, scale, and status. To note, large-scale open-pit metallic mines operate in two FNPAs, while large-scale non-metallic mines are located in four. Exploration projects and smaller mining operations involving both metallic and non-metallic minerals are currently underway in other FNPAs. This paper discusses the implications of these findings for land-use and conservation policy.<hr/>Resumen La confluencia de la minería, una actividad que por su propia naturaleza modifica los paisajes de manera permanente, con la conservación, la cual busca preservar o restaurar sistemas naturales o de producción sostenibles, representa un reto para las políticas ambientales y de ordenamiento territorial. En México, el actual marco legal y regulatorio en materia ambiental permite que la minería se desarrolle al interior de ciertas categorías de áreas naturales protegidas. Sin embargo se desconoce qué tipos de minería efectivamente son practicadas al interior del sistema federal de áreas naturales protegidas de México. Este artículo es el primer estudio sobre el marco regulatorio, distribución espacial y caracterización de las actividades mineras desarrolladas dentro de las áreas naturales protegidas de jurisdicción federal en México (ANPF). Para este estudio examinamos aquellas ANPF en que es permisible la minería y caracterizamos las operaciones mineras identificadas en cada caso según tipo de mineral, escala de operación y estado de actividad. Posteriormente abordamos los modos en que los esquemas de zonificación posibilitan la práctica de la minería en estas áreas protegidas y discutimos sus implicaciones para la conservación. Encontramos que de 177 ANPF, 30 explícitamente permiten la práctica de la minería. En todas ellas, excepto siete, se identificó al menos un tipo de minería. Notablemente, se identificaron dos ANPF con presencia de minas metálicas de gran escala de tajo a cielo abierto y cuatro ANPF con minas no metálicas de gran escala de tajo a cielo abierto. Adicionalmente se identificaron otros proyectos y operaciones de minería metálica y no metálica en las demás áreas protegidas analizadas. Finalmente discutimos estos resultados en términos de sus implicaciones para las políticas ambientales y de ordenamiento territorial. <![CDATA[<em>Geographic tourist status</em> in the <em>urban era</em> and the countryside-city progression in Latin America]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200110&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Propuesta para una lectura comprometida del paisaje. San Luis Huexotla, Estado de México]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200201&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Góis, M. P. F. (2017) <em>Paisagens luminosas e cenários noturnos: formas, práticas e significados da noite na cidade do Rio de Janeiro</em>, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro: Editora da Universidade Federal Fluminense, 211 pp. ISBN 978-85-228-1238-7]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200301&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Sklair, L. (2017) <em>The Icon Project. Architecture, Cities, and Capitalist Globalization,</em> New York: Oxford University Press, 352 pp., ISBN 978-0190464189]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200302&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Barrera de la Torre, G. (2017). <em>Ontología del paisaje chatino: hacia “otras” Geografías. La(s) geografía(s) chatina(s) de la región de San Juan Lachao, Oaxaca.</em> México: Instituto de Investigaciones Dr. José María Luis Mora, 124 pp., ISBN: 978-607-9475-61-1]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200303&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Smith, N. y Mitchell, D. (Eds.). (2018) <em>Revolting New York: How 400 Years of Riot, Rebellion, Uprising, and Revolution Shaped a City,</em> Athens, University of Georgia Press, ISBN: 9780820352800 (ebook)]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200304&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Battle-Baptiste, W. y Russert, B. (Eds.) (2018) <em>W. E. B. Du Bois’s Data Portraits: Visualizing Black America</em>. The W. E. B. Du Bois Center at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Nueva York: Princeton Architectural Press, 144 pp., ISBN 978-1-61689-706-2]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200305&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Lazcano, S.C. (2018) <em>Sobre el nombre California</em>. Instituto Sudcaliforniano de Cultura, La Paz, 157 pp. ISBN: 978-607-8609-23-9]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200306&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Exposición fotográfica: “Aerofoto | Oaxaca desde el aire”, Fundación ICA, Centro de las Artes de San Agustín (CaSa), San Agustín Etla, Oaxaca, febrero-marzo de 2019]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200401&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Cumbre binacional sobre aguas subterráneas transfronterizas México-Estados Unidos, <em>TecH20 Center</em>, El Paso, Texas, 10 y 11 de abril de 2019]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200402&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Annual Meeting. Association of American Geographers, Wardman Park and Shoreham hotels, Washington, D. C., 3-7 de abril de 2019]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200403&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures. <![CDATA[Coloquio y Exposición Biobibliográfica: “Aquilino, años 20: entre el exilio y las geografías de Lisboa”, Biblioteca Nacional de Portugal (Campo Grande, 83), Lisboa, Coloquio: 16 de mayo de 2019 y Exposición: 16 de mayo a 30 de agosto de 2019]]> http://www.scielo.org.mx/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0188-46112019000200404&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen El debate de la era urbana tiende a abstraer, dicotomizar y eclipsar la interacción rural-urbano, que es el aspecto originario y duradero de las ciudades. Frente a ello, esta investigación tiene por objetivo proponer la discusión de la situación geográfica turística oriunda de esta interacción en Latinoamérica. Se defiende la tesis de que la fricción, tensión y simbiosis de lo rural-urbano por el turismo en pequeñas ciudades del continente, a través del imaginario individual y colectivo idílico de la cultura y de la “naturaleza” gestado en la metrópolis, virtualizan ruralidades concretas. Metodológicamente, se propone una cartografía de la situación geográfica turística, la cual integra un palimpsesto de variables, escalas y de temporalidades propias del mundo rural-urbano pueblerino y metropolitano. Se elude la fuerza de la dicotomía rural/urbano o campo/ciudad, así como el protagonismo analítico de las metrópolis, para interpretar las conectividades de aglomeraciones escalares, donde las resistencias y/o virtualidades de las ruralidades son los motivos de las conexiones. Los sitios mineros de Pirenópolis (Goiás, Brasil) y Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosí, México) fundamentaron la revisión teórica y la propuesta metodológica.<hr/>Abstrac The discussion of the urban era tends to isolate, dichotomize and overshadow the rural-urban interaction, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. In this context, this work aims to propose a discussion of the geographic tourist situation addressing this interaction in Latin America. The thesis defended is that the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism in small cities of the American continent, through the individual and collective idyllic imaginary of culture and “nature” created in the metropolis virtualize concrete ruralities. Methodologically, we propose a cartography of the geographic tourist status that integrates a palimpsest of variables, scales, and temporalities unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. It bypasses the strength of the rural/urban or countryside/ city dichotomy, as well as the analytical protagonism of the metropolis, to interpret the connectivities of scalar agglomerations where the resistances and/or virtualities of ruralities are the reasons underlying the connections. The theoretical revision and the methodological proposal were supported on the mining sites of Pirenópolis (Goias, Brazil) and Real de Catorce (San Luis Potosi, Mexico). The geographic tourist status seeks to relativize the protagonism of the metropolis as the core of global agglomeration-difussion of the urban era. This requires deeper territorial analysis involving the social, mental, and physical perspectives; in other words, it is at the core of the spatial dialectics. This proposal is justified by being contextually singular and theoretically universal, contrary to the thesis of the urban era that isolates, dicotomizes and eclipses the rural-urban symbiosis, which is the source and lasting aspect of cities. The geographic tourist status is produced by the rural nature as well as by the real and virtual rurality (small city) and imagined rurality (metropolis). Thus, the cartography of the geographic tourist status should consider (i) the mutual interaction and overlap of flows between small and large (or medium) cities, and (ii) the interactions with and between attractive locations on the site or small city itself and its surroundings. The analysis of the small Latin American cities Pirenópolis (Brazil) and Real de Catorce (Mexico) made it possible to confirm the thesis regarding the rural-urban friction, tension, and symbiosis by tourism through the individual and collective imaginary originating in the metropolis, which virtualizes the concrete ruralities inherent to these centers. The representation of this spatial situation integrates a palimpsest of scales, temporalities and variables unique to the provincial and metropolitan urban-rural world. Methodologically, consideration should be given to the technical-political content of each moment within the continuum revealing those perpetually linked worlds -rural and urban- that constitute a lasting symbiosis through which the territory brings together history without clear ruptures.