Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Educación química]]> vol. 20 num. lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<b>La 8ª Convención Nacional y 1ª Internacional de Profesores de Ciencias Naturales</b>]]> <![CDATA[<b>La afectividad en la enseñanza de la ciencia</b>]]> The cognitive models are relevant and useful for conceptualizing student learning, but their reliance on a model of academic learning as cold and isolated cognition may not adequately describe learning in the classroom context. That is because the learning of scientific concepts is more than a cognitive process. Students' interest and attitudes towards science as well as their perceptions of how well they will perform in learning contexts may play important roles in developing a meaningful understanding of science, one that goes beyond rote memorization towards the ability to explain everyday phenomena with current scientific knowledge. Teaching is highly charged with feeling, aroused by and directed towards not just people but also values and ideals. Behind practitioners' affective reactions to both their work and the settings in which it takes place lies the close personal identification of teachers with their profession. We have to draw attention to several decades of neglecting a research topic which is of daily concern to practitioners. Despite the passion with which teachers have always talked about their jobs, there is relatively little recent research into the part played by or the significance of affectivity in teachers' lives, careers and classroom behaviour. Good teaching is characterized by a Supportive Classroom Climate; that is, a favourable classroom learning environment. The affective domain can be summarized by beliefs, attitudes and emotions; by interests, motivation and goals. <![CDATA[<b>Química</b>: <b>¿Quién eres, a dónde vas y cómo te alcanzamos?</b>]]> This paper presents a personal reflection on the nature of Chemistry, its potential areas of development in the 21st century, and the corresponding implications for chemistry education. Beyond reflecting about basic characteristics of Chemistry as a science and speculating on future research trends in this discipline, the central goal of this essay is to motivate chemistry teachers and instructors, as well as chemical educators, to question the relevance and validity of the current general chemistry curriculum at the different educational levels, and to promote the development of alternatives ways of conceptualizing such a curriculum. <![CDATA[<b>Unas ciencias para el siglo XXI</b>: <b>El caso de las CMC en España</b>]]> Diverse studies have shown that, increasingly, there are less people who feel attracted to sciences. The problem is especially serious, on the one hand because the scientific knowledge is called to play a more and more important role in the social-decision making process and the citizenship must be able to participate in it and, on the other, because the number of students that attends university science degrees is decreasing, circumstance that will have undesirable socioeconomic effects. This work analyses some of the causes of this situation and presents the contributions that can be done, in the Spanish case, to the scientific formation of students and to the renovation of the subject "Sciences for the Contemporary World" that is currently taught in the Spanish classrooms and has been offered since September 2008." <![CDATA[<b>La lectura como medio para desarrollar el pensamiento crítico</b>]]> Critical thinking is a crucial aspect that every citizen needs to be able to take part in a democratic and plural society. The current society, with a generalized access to information through Internet and with a constant bombardment of data, opinions and watchwords, demands new competences. Among them we would choose the one that relates to the capacity to think critically and to understand every kind of text to which it has had access and that are related to subjects, many times with a scientific basis, that affect us directly (climate change, alternative energies, transgenic foods...). This article shows the results of applying two activities of critical reading carried out in the context of Chemistry classes. The texts have been selected taking the contents worked previously and the social relevance of the problem that they discuss, without forgetting and taking into account its possible potential for arousing the interest of the student. <![CDATA[<b>¿Cómo diseñar una secuencia de enseñanza de ciencias con una orientación socioconstructivista?</b>]]> This conference aims to show how the results of research in science teaching can be used by teachers in the design and development of a sequence of learning from a socio-constructivist view. Based on the training needs of the teacher to successfully face the challenges of teaching, teachers have to develop four skills in the design of a teaching sequence: the history and epistemology of the concepts and theories taught and, in particular, major problems in its construction; namely the sequencing of objectives and appropriate content to the student's psychological problems, in the form of interest; determine the specific knowledge and skills students should acquire in relation to the contents and understand their key difficulties; finally find a teaching model selection to derive coherent strategies that facilitate learning. In the talk has been applied the model of teaching-learning based on developing guided research focused on the design of a sequence of teaching on the atomic theory of matter for high school students. <![CDATA[<b>Notas sobre la sustentabilidad y la enseñanza de las Ciencias Naturales</b>]]> This article reflects on the concepts of sustainability, environment, and sustainable livelihoods, mentioning its integrative points, on environmental, social, and personal levels. It defines these concepts, criticizing, for example, some definitions that overlap, such as that of environment, sustainable development and environmental education, education for Sustainable Development or education for sustainability. Additionally, stresses the complexity of education for sustainability in that it should reflect the complexity of the environment. It follows that educators on sustainability who work in the country's protected areas are understanding that his/her role does not only require knowledge of ecology and pedagogy in designing and implementing processes of "teaching-learning", but also implies that he/she must attend to, and be prepared for, the organizational and social dimensions, diagnosis and planning, and productive- and communicative-techniques, amongst others. The article also demonstrates that education is not only the transfer of prominent scientific know-how, nor a parade of exhortations through various media. Education requires the creation of emotional ties to nature and the development of environmental ethics, which is a long, systematic process. Education on sustainability promotes a systematic vision that permits us to see ecological deterioration not only as a remote phenomenon circumscribed to the poor management of ecosystems, but as part of a complex plot in which cultural, economic, and political dimensions and ethics play important roles as causal factors. Educational practices carried out within a Protected Area cannot be removed of their political dimension. They must integrate such aforementioned reflections on deterioration and implement alternatives that propose links between the quality of ecosystems and the quality of life of those who inhabit them or those who are benefited by their influence. <![CDATA[<b>"El orangután le dijo a la orangutana"</b>]]> As in other countries in which Catholicism is an important part of the cultural background, Mexican society as a whole is not only predominantly secular, but also takes for granted the existence of strong laical institutions. These include our public school system, where evolutionary biology has been part of curricula without leading to rejection from the Church. In contrast to fundamentalist groups, Catholics tend not to read the Old Testament as the literal truth, but as a depiction of the ways in which divine creation, when it is accepted, may have taken place. The high number of fundamentalist missionaries and the influence of American creationists must be acknowledged as a potential threat to Mexican public education, together with the reduced budgets for primary and secondary schools, poor libraries and laboratories and, equally significant, the reduced attention to teachers' working conditions and social appreciation. <![CDATA[<b>Las disciplinas científicas</b>: <b>¿referencia única para seleccionar contenidos para la educación científica básica en México?</b>]]> For over 40 years criteria to select science contents for basic education in Mexico focus on structure, fundamental ideas and methodology of scientific disciplines. The science curriculum declares that science education should be useful to students to prepare them as citizens who could use scientific knowledge and process to solve problems of their everyday living. These ideas were justified with the argument that citizens who knew science would be able to understand their social and natural environments and therefore they could act on it. The objective of this article is to promote the debate about the disadvantages of designing the science curriculum from this perspective. Author's work in rural and indigenous communities shows that educational needs of the students are not in agreement with the science contents in the curriculum: a) The knowledge that students need for understanding a specific problem of their everyday living and make decisions to solve it bears no relation to the science content in the curriculum. b) The levels of generality and abstraction of the science content do not correspond with those that students require to understand their reality. c) The organization and distribution of the science contents in the different educational levels do not correspond with student's needs or wishes to know them at specific moments of their lives. d) Science curriculum is not useful for satisfying the educational necessities of the rural and indigenous communities. They need scientific and technological knowledge but schools are unable to offer it to them properly. <![CDATA[<b>Coevolución en redes sociales</b>]]> Networks are thought to be essential in understanding the emergence and sustainability of collective behaviour in many complex systems often found in fields such as physics, sociology, biology, ecology and economy, to name just a few. The problem is that although they can be represented mathematically as a graph, the characterisation of nodes and links in it is usually quite arbitrary, and therefore basic quantities such as space dimension and metrics are not well defined, which leads to ambiguities in the establishment of dynamical equations to dictate the state of the system. In this paper we propose and review a general framework to study the dynamical evolution of networks based in the concept of coevolution, which implies a feedback between the state variables defined over the nodes and the structure of the network itself. The usefulness and generality of such a framework is shown by modelling an opinion formation process in human societies, in which the dynamical formation of community structures is predicted and characterised in terms of the parameters of the model. <![CDATA[<b>2009 - Año Internacional de la Astronomía, una oportunidad para promover la ciencia</b>]]> Con el Año Internacional de la Astronomía 2009 (AIA2009), celebramos un momento crucial en la historia de la ciencia: la primera observación astronómica con un telescopio, hecha por Galileo Galilei en 1609. El invento del telescopio dio inicio a 400 años de asombrosos descubrimientos astronómicos. Actualmente podemos afirmar que la astronomía representa una disciplina muy atractiva para los jóvenes desde temprana edad, por lo que seria importante captar su interés y explicar un conjunto de conocimientos básicos de física. En este aspecto, los profesores de física y matemáticas de esta agrupación pueden jugar un papel destacado. En esta presentación describiré algunos aspectos de la celebración del Año Internacional de la Astronomía 2009 en nuestro país, y también propondré algunas actividades para los maestros de ciencias de educación media y media superior.<hr/>The International Year of Astronomy 2009 celebrates a crucial moment in the history of science: the first astronomical observations through a telescope, carried out by Galileo Galilei in 1609. The invention of the telescope was the starting point of what turned out to be a sequence of astonishing astronomical discoveries. At present we can assert that astronomy is a topic of attraction for youngsters at all ages, so that calling their attention to astronomy we should be able to draw their interest in science and explain a set of basic physics concepts. In this endeavor, mathematics and physics teachers of this association can play a very significant role. In my presentation I describe our plans to be carried out in our country and I also demonstrate some possible practical activities to be carried out by secondary and middle school teachers. <![CDATA[<b>Favorecimiento del aprendizaje del modelo electrostático</b>: <b>análisis del modelo de enseñanza del enlace iónico con base en modelaje</b>]]> Se elaboró toda una secuencia de actividades para la enseñanza del enlace iónico con base en dos marcos teóricos: enseñanza con base en modelos y el modelo electrostático. En las actividades tratamos de establecer una relación entre los mecanismos a través de los cuales se forma un enlace iónico con los aspectos energéticos concernientes con la formación de la malla iónica. En este artículo presentamos los aspectos relevantes de la estrategia de enseñanza y comentamos acerca de cómo la discusión de esos aspectos favoreció al aprendizaje del enlace iónico en los estudiantes. También damos recomendaciones sobre la enseñanza del enlace químico en los niveles secundario y universitario.<hr/>A series of activities for the teaching of the ionic bond were elaborated based on two theoretical frameworks: modelling-based-teaching and the electrostatic model. In the activities, we tried to establish a relationship between the mechanism through which an ionic bond is formed with energetic issues concerning with the formation of the ionic lattice. In this paper, we present relevant aspects of the teaching strategy and comments about how the discussion of such aspects favoured students' learning about the ionic bonding. We also discuss recommendations about the teaching of chemical bonding at secondary and university levels.