ISSN 1405-3195 printed version
Revista Agrociencia is a scientific journal sponsored by the Colegio de Postgraduados for the purpose of offering researchers in agricultural sciences and related fields, from México and abroad, a space for publishing the results of their research. Revista Agrociencia accepts contributions derived from theoretical or experimental research, in the form of articles, notes or essays. All contributions will be peer reviewed and edited; they must be original and unpublished, and must not be under review by another journal. Research papers of which only advances have been published in the form of abstract will also be eligible for publication. The journal has nine sections related to the Agricultural Sciences:
- Water, Soil, Climate
- Animal Science
- Food Science
- Plant Science
- Agricultural Machinery
- Applied Mathematics, Statistics and Computing
- Plant Protection
- Renewable Natural Resources
Original manuscripts will be received in either English or Spanish. If accepted, the work will be published in both languages once the editing process has been completed. Translation from one language to thr other will be carried out by professionals designated by Agrociencia. The amount and form of payment for the translation will be settled between the author and the translator, although the authorities of the journal will oversee the transaction to insure a satisfactory conclusion for both parties.
STRUCTURE AND FORMAT OF THE CONTRIBUTIONS
All contributions proposed for publication in Revista Agrociencia should be submitted must be double spaced (including tables, figures and cited literature), using font Courier New size 12, with margins of 2.5 cm. Each paragraph (except the Abstract) must begin with an indentation of five spaces. Hyphens will be used in the right margin only to divide words and not to fill empty spaces. All of the pages will be numbered on the upper right corner and should end with complete words. Each line should be numbered starting with 1 on each page.
Contributions can be sent by email or regular mail, with a brief note of intention to:
Guerrero #9, Esquina Avenida Hidalgo
56251 San Luis Huexotla. Texcoco,
Estado de México.
Director of Revista Agrociencia
Colegio de Postgraduados,
56230 Montecillo, Estado de México
Alternatively, the contribution can be submitted in a CD accompanied by a printed copy.
Structure of the article. The text will have a maximum of 20 pages, including tables and figures. Longer texts will be accepted only by invitation.
The Article will contain the following chapters:
Abstract. In one paragraph, with a maximum of 300 words, stating the most important aspects of the work: justification and importance, methodology and most relevant conclusions, supported by specific results of the research. If it is the case, the species used must be indicated, with their respective scientific names. Information in this chapter must be congruent with what is presented in the rest of the article. The abstract will be written only in the original language of the contribution. After approval for publication, the article will be translated to the other language during the editing process. A maximum of six simple or compound key words will be listed at the end of the Abstract.
Introduction. The importance of the subject should be clearly indicated, along with the justification of the research and the relevant bibliographic antecedents that support the hypothesis and the stated objectives. That is, the why and the what for of the research must be clearly stated, and the published information on the subject must be mentioned. There will not be a specific chapter of Revised Literature, however, it must be presented in the Introduction. The antecedents must be supported by recent bibliography, so that the present level of the topic can be known. Only quotes from articles published in edited journals will be accepted. Quotes from Bachelor’s or Master’s thesis will not be accepted. The cited antecedents must be written in a congruent manner, and ordered according to the sequence of the article. An excess of references for a general concept must be avoided. The use of references must be precise and specific.
Materials and methods. To answer to the questions: where, when and how the research was made, the author must describe the materials and procedures employed, the measurements and units of the variables, along with the statistical analysis. It is necessary to provide enough information of each variable, so that other researchers could repeat the study. The information of this chapter should be congruent with the stated objectives. Include the model and make of the instruments employed (including the country of manufacture). In the case of reagents, include the company (i.e., Sigma, Merck, etc.). Laboratory methods must also be described with enough detail to be reproduced; if they are common procedures and were not modified in the study, it is sufficient to indicate the respective bibliographical reference.
Results and discussion. These will be presented in a single chapter, where the reader must find answers to the questions: What happened and why? What do the results mean? and How are they related to the stated hypotheses? For this purpose, the occurrences derived from the applied methodology will be presented, ordered in a logical and objective manner, and supported by tables and figures (photographs, drawings or graphs). The information of Results should be presented in a clear and understandable form, without recurring to the repetition of data in tables and figures. The author must consider that it is not enough to present results, rather it is necessary to interpret these results based on clear, objective and impartial reasoning. Furthermore, their meaning should be discussed according to their similarity or contrast with those published by other authors. To this respect, the possible causes of such differences should be discussed, and options for future studies should be suggested. Consequently, bibliographical references that were not included in the Introduction chapter can be added in this section. In this chapter the author should verify his hypotheses. Consequently, it is important that the discussion be based on the results and that there is congruence with the objectives and methodologies described in the preceding chapters. Explanations of numerical differences that are not based on tests and statistical practices in current use must be avoided. For example, do not use the classical minimum significant difference to compare more than two means, nor other obsolete tests of multiple means comparisons. Also, although it is not incorrect, it is now unnecessary to utilize the terms significant (p≤0.05) and highly significant (p≤0.01), as computer packages commonly used provide the exact significance of the statistic test, nor should reference be made to variables that are not measured in the investigation. In any case, propositional or speculative explanations are valid provided they are properly supported by bibliographic references or through clear and correct reasoning, but they must be stated very briefly.
Conclusions. Indicate categorically, briefly and precisely, the specific contributions to knowledge based on the results that can be demonstrated and confirmed by the study, not by other research works. No conclusion should be defended or based on suppositions. Do not number the conclusions or use abbreviations (i.e., TAN, PMS, VAN, etc.), instead, use complete terms so that the reader does not have to refer to other parts of the text to understand them. There should be congruence with the information presented in the Abstract.
Acknowledgements. Will be included only when the author wishes to acknowledge individuals or institutions that financed, advised or assisted in the research; in the case of individuals, their affiliation should be mentioned, as well as their contribution to the investigation.
Cited literature. This chapter consists of the list, in alphabetical and chronological order, of all of the references cited in the text. References must contain complete information. Do not omit or change the year of publication, the last names or names of the authors or journals, nor the titles of the articles or books consulted. Precisions will be made on this chapter farther on, as to how its defective or imprecise writing affects the reference index of an author or a journal.
Types of documents accepted
1) Brief findings and contributions, preferably based on results of recent research which could still require verification, but which, in the opinion of the reviewers and editors, are sufficiently outstanding.
2) Results which the reviewers or editors deem worthy of being published under this heading.
3) Results of modifications or improvements of an experimental method or technique, statistical analysis, field, greenhouse or laboratory apparatus or instrument. In general, a Note will contain the same chapters as an article, but it can have a maximum length of 10 pages.
Essay.The Essay is a document that offers a critical, analytical and documented approach to the current state of knowledge in a given topic. It should contain a new and unpublished approach and clearly differentiated personal interpretations, so that the quality of the work stands out; Revista Agrociencia will not publish Bibliographical Reviews or Essays that do not constitute original knowledge or interpretations. Any essay submitted to the editorial process in Agrociencia must have a solid –and updated– section of cited literature. Most of the structural components (or chapters) of this type of contribution are open to the criteria of the authors. However, it must contain the following chapters: Summary, Abstract, Introduction, Conclusions and Cited Literature, each with a structure similar to the one indicated for Articles. It can have a maximum length of 20 pages.
The format applicable to the three types of contributions accepted is:
Title. It must be brief (20 words or less) and reflect the content of the contribution. The title should be centered, using capital letters without period at the end. It should contain no footnotes, asterisks or indices. Scientific names will be included only for species that are uncommon or when it is indispensable; if they must be included, they are to be written in italics and with a capital letter in the first letter of the genus.
Authors. Authors will use their complete names (no initials of first, middle or last names), but it will be agreed with them whether their names will be abbreviated in the published version. Authors’ names will be separated by commas and there will be no period after the name of the last author. The location of the names will be centered, immediately below the title. Will not include professional degrees or work titles; with capital letters only in the first letters. At the end of each name, progressive numerical indices will be placed, and at the foot of the first page the following information will be included for each index number: name of the institution and official address, including zip code, fax number and electronic mail. If all of the authors work at the same institution and department, a single index (after each name) will be sufficient. In any case, the author responsible for the publication should be identified, or to whom correspondence should be sent. If during the editorial process the corresponding author modifies the information given initially, he should make the respective changes before the final version is authorized by the Director for translation.
Key words. They are descriptors that make possible to classify the contribution in scientific bibliography indices. A maximum of six simple or compound terms are accepted, with capital letter only in the first letter of the first word and proper nouns, separated by commas, with a period after the last word. It is obligatory to include the scientific names of each of the species included in the Abstract as key words. They will be placed below the last line of the Abstract, aligned to the left margin of the text.
Headings. They have diverse orders and their position signals the hierarchy corresponding to each part of the contribution. All headings should be written in bold print.
First order The only heading of this type is the title of the contribution, which must be written with capital letters and centered, with no period at the end.
Second order. To this type correspond the different sections of the Article and the Note: i.e. ABSTRACT, INTRODUCTION, etc.; it should be written all in capital letters and centered; with no period at the end. It includes all the important divisions in an Essay. The text will begin below this heading.
Third order. It will be written in small letters, except for the first letter and the proper names. It will be centered and with no period at the end. The text will continue below this heading.
Fourth order. It will be written with small letters, except for the first letter and the proper names. It will begin at the left margin (no indentation) with no period at the end. The text will continue below this heading.
Fifth order. Try to avoid them. If they are indispensable, they are to be written the same way as those of the fourth order, but with a period at the end and with the text starting on the same line.
Bibliographical references in the text. Harvard style will be used in all of the contributions to express the references: Author(s), period at the end, year, followed by period. However, the form of applying this system will depend on the writing of the respective phrases or sentences.
Paragraphs, phrases or sentences in which the authors of the reference are mentioned:
1) If it is only one author, write the first surname completely, the year of publication in parenthesis, followed directly by the verb in its respective tense with no punctuation between these three elements [i.e., Martínez (1995) indicates…; López (1992) stated…]
2) When there are two authors, put the first surname of each one, separated by the conjunction “and” followed by the year [i.e., Jones and Smith (1993) demonstrated…; Laplace and Verne (1980) discovered…].
3) If the reference corresponds to three or more authors, proceed as in case 1, adding the Latin locution et al. abbreviation of et alii, which means “and collaborators”, thus al. always has a period) and the year [i.e., Espinoza et al. (1985) pointed out…; Williams et al. (1990), when applying foliar nitrogen, found…].
Cases in which the reference is placed at the end of the sentence, phrase or paragraph. The surnames are placed according to the number of authors of each publication (as indicated in the previous section) but separating the authors and the year by commas, and each reference by semicolon; all within a general parenthesis i.e., “Numerous authors were employed in the previous section as an example to cite references in the text (Laplace and Verne, 1980; Espinoza et al., 1985; Williams et al., 1990; López, 1992; Jones and Smith, 1993; Martínez, 1995)”. Note that the references are ordered chronologically. When authors who have published more than one reference in a single year are cited, they are distinguished with the letters a, b, c, etc., placed immediately after the year of publication, references which will appear –in the order of the letters– in the chapter of Cited Literature. If, due to absolute lack of edited references, the author has to cite unpublished information or of restricted availability (for example, personal communication, technical reports, annual reports, mimeographed notes, Bachelors’ or Masters’ theses), because he considers that such information is really important, he can do so by identifying the source in the text [e.g. López, F. (2006)3 or MSPH, 19966] always with the corresponding superindex, and detailing the information at the foot of the page [e.g. 3López, F. Advisor to the Secretario de Bienes Nacionales) (firstname.lastname@example.org) or 6MSPH (Ministerio de Salud Pública de Homaya). 1996. Report of the vaccination campaign against malaria in 1995. Technical Pamphlet. 28 p.]. In any case, the reviewers and the editor will decide if such reference is indispensable. The references of newspapers will be made with the name of the newspaper as author followed by the year [i.e., La Jornada (1993)]. The textual references can be employed only in exceptional cases and will be enclosed with quotation marks, indicating at the end the author and the year of publication. In references where the author appears as an institution, v. gr. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Food and Agriculture Organization, it is admissible to use the acronym in the text if it is easily identifiable, but in the chapter of cited literature it will appear as UNAM (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México). Year. Etcetera. It is preferable for the authors to revise the original sources, instead of recurring to second hand references; so that they have their own judgement of the concepts, conclusions and value of what was reported in the original reference. Only when it is not possible to locate the primary information source, will it be acceptable to cite a work through another reference. For example: Gutiérrez, cited by Chávez (1994); or (Gutiérrez, cited by Chávez, 1994). Take note that in the chapter of Cited Literature, only the reference that the authors actually consulted will be consigned, that is, Chávez in this case. Whenever possible, the year of the original reference should be mentioned (e.g. Gutiérrez, 1991, cited by Chávez, 1994). In any case, the complete references cited in the text, without exception, should be included in the chapter of Cited Literature.
Tables. Tables are utilized to complement the text, or when their use constitutes an important saving of space. They must be clear, simple and concise. Each table should present data in an organized manner, to facilitate comparisons, show classifications, allow a rapid observation of some relationships, and above all, save space of the text. Each table should be self explanatory and its content should not be repeated in the figures or in the text of the contribution. Tables should be numbered progressively without the abbreviation of the number (i.e., Table 3). This is to be followed by the title, which should be written in the upper portion and in small letters, except the initial of the first word and the initials of proper nouns. The title will end with a period. The location of the table should be immediately after the paragraph where it is first mentioned, if it fits completely; if it does not fit on the same page where it is mentioned, it will be placed at the beginning of the next page, where the text should continue if there is still space after the table, thus facilitating the reading and analysis of the information. It is not acceptable to place the tables at the end of the Cited Literature. Tables which in their final version occupy more than one page will be accepted only in exceptional cases. Do not use another word to substitute the expression table. Each variable or concept should be identified with its name and units. The large figures should be reduced, leaving only the significant digits, according to the level of precision with which the variable is measured. Each table will have only three horizontal lines across its length (major), although there may be several sublines that cover part of the columns or concepts; the first line is placed below the title of the table; the second, below the principal classification criteria; and the third, at the end of the table. The footnotes of the table will be placed after the last major horizontal line. To provided complementary information to the title, headings or data, it is recommended to use the symbols †, ¶, §, Þ, ¤, ††, ¶¶, §§, ÞÞ, ¤¤, †††,..., in order of appearance. In Table 1 an example of the format for tables is shown. Note that, in general, the word tables is used but, when a particular table is referred, Table (number) should be written. Also observe that all of the information of this table is aligned with tabulators and not with spaces, so that the data can be manipulated when it is given format. The authors should take special care not to saturate their contribution with tables of a reduced size, when the information of various tables can often be included in a single table. However, it is also not convenient to include a table with too many columns or rows, especially if the tabulated information is not used in the discussion. All of the variables included in the tables and figures must be described in the chapter of Materials and Methods, and interpreted and discussed in the chapter of Results and Discussion.
Figures. The figures correspond to the drawings, graphs, diagrams and photographs; their information, in the chapter of Results, must not be duplicated in tables or in the text. The photographs must have an adequate contrast for printing and be sent in positive, original (in black and white or color), and written on the reverse side with soft pencil, the number and place corresponding to the text; the titles of the photographs must be typed on a separate page. In the case of digital images, they should have a minimum of 150 dpi and a maximum of 300 dpi (dots per inch). Whenever possible, it is preferable for the photographs to be the size of a postcard and must clearly show what the author wishes to point out. In the case of doubtful orientation, include this with an ↑ and the word “up” on the back of the photograph, with a soft pencil.
As in the case of the tables, the figures are specified in the text and in their titles, such as Figure 1, Figure 2,… (Figures 8 and 9), etc. The authors must consider that the reproduction of the photographs is costly and clarity is lost during the printing process, and that if it is necessary to present figures, it is convenient to do so in a size that is large enough to permit clarity in a reduction of up to 50% for the final impression. A size of half a page is suggested for simple figures and a page for complex figures, with a minimum size of 4 mm in letters and numbers. What should stand out in a figure is the content and not the axis. Consequently, the thickness of the axis should be less than that of the interior lines. The experimental points should be visibly marked. To indicate the dimensions of the axis, appropriate scales are suggested, which highlight what is to be shown; the legends of each axis should be placed as shown in Figure 1. Therefore, only the figures that come directly from the computer will be accepted if they fulfill the necessary requirements. The formats for sending figures of graphs are: the one used to make graphs with Microsoft Office, eps, wmf, cdr or ai, and these should not be converted into images, so that they can be manipulated. The photographic composition should be submitted mounted on paper, totally finished, with title and numeration. The enlargement of the photomicrographs and microphotographs must be indicated in the title. In the case of photographs with macro and microscopic structures, it is convenient to incorporate a bar that indicates the reference scale. As with the tables, all the figures should be expressly cited in the text, in progressive order.
Units. The units used will be those of the International System. It is suggested that the equivalence of symbols from any other system be placed in parenthesis, if they are different, the first time a unit is used. In a series of data with equal unit of measurement, use numerals followed by the abbreviated form of the unit (do not place a period or capital letters at the beginning); for example: 2, 4 and 6 µL L 1; 16, 20 and 33%; 3400, 1200 and 400 kg; 4 and 9 months. On the other hand, if there is only one figure and it is less than 10, it must be written in words (six varieties, four replicates, eight environments), contrasted with 16 trees, 126 wells,; however, if this figure is immediately accompanied by a unit of the international system, it should be expressed with a number (2 mg g1, 6 g, 5 L). Do not begin a phrase or paragraph with a numeral. Either change the sentence writing or write the number with letters. When there are large numbers in the text, try to round the figure and employ words as part of the number; thus, $458 960.00 can be expressed as “nearly 460 thousand pesos”. Remember that the symbols of the units of measurement must not be pluralized: kilo(s)=kg; kilometer(s)=km; hectare(s)=ha; meter(s)=m; liter(s)=L; gram(s)=g, etc.
Formulas and equations The indices and subindices should be well placed and legible. Take special care to clearly differentiate the numbers 0 and 1 from the letters O and I. The minimum acceptable size is 2 mm. The Greek letters, along with symbols, should be explained immediately after being used for the first time, except those of universal dominion. To express fractions, the linear form should be used, with negative exponentials for the denominators; for example: g cm2, kg ha1. The equations should be numbered consecutively between parenthesis, on the right, when they are more than one. Only those that are explicitly referred to in the text will be numbered. The use of fractional powers (½, ¾) are recommended instead of square or cubic roots, etc. The powers of “e” are better expressed as “exp” (abbreviation of the exponential function). In the case of chemical formulas, the charge of the ions is expressed as shown in the following example: Ca2+ and , and not Ca++ and . In the writing of isotopes, the number of mass is indicated in the upper left side of the symbol; for example: 15N, 14C, etcetera.
Nomenclature. The authors are obliged to submit to the rules of biological nomenclature indicated in: International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, International Code of Nomenclature of Bacteria and International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. From the Introduction chapter on, all living beings (plants, insects, birds, etc.) must be identified by their scientific name the first time they are cited, with the exception of some common domestic animals. This is apart from being cited in the Abstract. The agrochemicals, active ingredients and other compounds, must be identified by their name according to the internationally accepted nomenclature. The enzymes should be accompanied by their international symbol. For chemical nomenclature, the guidelines of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry must be followed, and the recommendations of the Combined Commission IUPACIUB of Biochemical Nomenclature.
Cited literature. In this chapter a list of all the references mentioned in the text must be included, in alphabetical order according to the first letters of the last name of the principal author. Some rules for their elaboration are as follows: 1) The references must be reported in the original language. 2) When the reference is in Spanish, place the complete first surname of the main author and then, with no comma in between, the initial of the second surname, place a comma and then add the initials of the first name of the author. Then, if it is the case, the initial(s) of the first name of the second author followed by the complete first surname and the initial of the second surname (no comma in between); in the case of the third and other coauthors, proceed as with the second, separated by a comma. In Spanish and in English, there are legally compounded surnames, formed by joining two surnames with a hyphen; only if this is the case should this form be used. Examples: Larqué Saavedra, A.; SmithJones, W. It is common in English names to use two names and one surname. For example: E. A. Smith, which will be cited in the case of being the first author, such as Smith, E. A., and as E. A. Smith, if it is the coauthor. Portugese and Brasilians place the maternal surname first, and this is the name that should be cited. For other nationalities the appropriate guides should be consulted, such as those of the Council of Biological Editors or the Norms of the IICA. 3) First place the references in which the first author was the only one, followed by those in which he was the principal author. When in various works consulted the first author or authors are the same, they will be ordered alphabetically based on the surname of the first single author. 4) When all the authors are common to various articles, the references will be ordered chronologically; if the year of publication was the same for various references, they will be differentiated with the letters a, b, c, etc. 5) Each component of a reference, whether it is an article, book, thesis, etc., will be separated with a period. The order of these components is as follows: In the case of Articles, indicate in order: author(s), year of publication, title of the article, complete name of the magazine, volume and pages (separating volume from page with colon). In the printed article the abbreviated name of the magazine will appear, under the responsibility of the editors. In the case of Books and Pamphlets, the order is as follows: author(s), year, title, name of the translator or editor (if they exist), number of the edition (if it is not the first), name and location of the publisher or the Institution where the work was printed and total number of pages (i.e.., 150 p.) or specific if only part of the work was consulted (i.e., pp: 2530). 6) When the work that is being cited is part of a publication whose chapters were written by different authors, such as memories of congresses, symposiums, etc., the bibliographic reference will be structured as follows: author(s), year, title of the article or chapter; this will be followed by the Latin term In:, name of the publication, name(s) of the editor(s) or compiler(s), indicating in parenthesis (ed., eds.) or (comp., comps.), as the case may be; place and date of occurrence, name of the publishing house (Pub.) or Institution where the publication was printed, and the numeration of pages of the article or chapter. 7) Do not use capital letters for the titles of the articles, thesis, technical pamphlets summaries in congresses, or chapters of books. Only use them in the initials of the proper nouns, after a period. 8) Capital letters will be used at the beginning of each word in the titles of books or the name of the congress, memory, symposium or reunion. Next, diverse examples are presented which cover the majority of the previously mentioned cases (many references are hypothetical):
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